Memahami Margin Call - Forex Indonesia

[REVIEW] DEGIRO: untuk orang Indonesia dengan domisili Eropa yang tertarik dengan ETF

Halo halo! Mungkin ini agak OOT karena kasusnya untuk di luar Indonesia, tapi saya rasa informasi ini mungkin berguna untuk orang-orang Indonesia yang sedang merantau ke Eropa (dan sepertinya cukup banyak redittor Indonesia yang berdomisili di luar). Saya sendiri berharap ada informasi seperti ini ketika saya memutuskan untuk memulai investasi tahun lalu.
Tahun lalu ketika saya memutuskan untuk investasi, saya mencari informasi di sub eupersonalfinance. Saya kemudian memutuskan untuk investasi di ETF. Untuk yang belum tahu tentang ETF, itu adalah semacam saham index. Kalau sudah pernah dengar tentang Vanguard, produk mereka sebenarnya adalah ETF. Setelah itu saya harus membuat pilihan mengenai broker yang akan saya gunakan. Saat itu ada beberapa broker yang saya pertimbangkan:
IB adalah pilihan yang menarik karena mereka sebenarnya sudah cukup establish, sayangnya inactivity fee mereka cukup tinggi sehingga tidak cocok untuk yang modal kecil (di bawah EUR 25,000). Trading212 cukup menarik tapi sepertinya kurang banyak review yang meyakinkan. Untuk eToro sendiri sebenarnya cukup menarik terutama karena mereka marketingnya cukup agresif, dan ide social trading membuat ide investasi menjadi lebih gamified dan mudah diakses. Sayangnya seperti-nya fee structurenya kurang jelas sehingga saya pun menghindari jasa mereka. Pilihan saya jatuh kepada DEGIRO. Memang saat itu saya mulai investasi dengan teman yang seorang manajer investasi di Blackrock sehingga saya banyak meminta pendapat dia. Kami berdua pun memutuskan untuk memulai portfolio kami di DEGIRO.

Pendaftaran

Proses pendaftaran DEGIRO sendiri cukup straightforward. Karena DEGIRO hanya bekerja dengan bahasa lokal, saya diarahkan oleh CS untuk membuka akun di DEGIRO Irlandia agar bisa menggunakan bahasa Inggris. Kemudian saya harus menambahkan rekening bank. Hampir semua rekening bank di Uni Eropa (IBAN) diterima kecuali beberapa negara seperti: Bulgaria, Kroasia, Siprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta dan Romania. Karena kebetulan rekening bank saya memiliki IBAN Jerman, saya bisa membuka rekening tanpa masalah. DEGIRO juga meminta nomor akun pajak, dan karena saya berdomisili di Italia maka saya juga tidak ada masalah. Saya sempat membaca beberapa masalah tentang nasabah yang berdomisili pajak di negara yang tidak terdaftar, katanya setelah beberapa lama mereka harus menutup rekening dengan DEGIRO dan semua posisi mereka harus dijual. Saya sendiri diminta akun pajak sekitar 8 bulan setelah saya mulai berinvestasi.
Selain masalah domisili dan rekening bank, saya juga harus memilih jenis rekening. Ada 2 jenis rekening: custody dan basic.
Karena saya berminat hanya untuk ETF, saya memutuskan untuk mengambil akun custody.

Biaya

Ada beberapa biaya yang harus diperhatikan ketika menggunakan DEGIRO. Untuk detilnya bisa dicek di link berikut:
Secara umum, fee yang harus diperhatikan adalah:
Keuntungan DEGIRO menurut saya adalah tidak adanya inactivity fee. Selain itu deposit dan withdrawal juga gratis, kuran lebih dalam 3 hari kerja.

Pengalaman

Saya sudah memegang posisi ETF di DEGIRO sejak bulan April 2019. Saya sendiri tidak pernah kena masalah dan semuanya cukup lancar. Spread yang ditawarkan cukup masuk akal, dan trading terjadi real time. Selain itu DEGIRO juga menyediakan aplikasi web dan ponsel yang cukup mudah dimengerti dan dioperasikan. Walaupun demikian, saya rasa ketika kapital saya mencapai 25k EUR mungkin saya juga akan bermigrasi ke IB yang sudah lebih established walaupun lebih mahal.

Posisi

Untuk sekarang ini berikut adalah posisi saya, kalau rekan-rekan tertarik dengan portfolio ETF:
Nama ISIN Ticker Expense Ratio Exchange
iShares Core MSCI Emerging Markets IMI UCITS ETF (Acc) IE00BKM4GZ66 EMIM 0.18% pa Euronext Amsterdam
iShares Core MSCI World UCITS ETF USD (Acc) IE00B4L5Y983 IWDA 0.20% pa Euronext Amsterdam
iShares Nasdaq 100 UCITS ETF (Acc) IE00B53SZB19 CNDX 0.33% pa Euronext Amsterdam
Untuk yang banyak mendengar tentang Vanguard SP500, mungkin akan tertarik dengan CSPX dengan expense ratio 0.07% pa. CSPX adalah produk Blackrock yang mengikuti SP500 dengan tracking error cukup rendah. Alasan saya memilih instrumen tersebut adalah sebagai berikut:
Kalau rekan-rekan perhatikan, semua ETF pilihan saya adalah accumulative yang berarti saya tidak menerima dividen, melainkan dividen akan langsung diinvestasikan kembali di ETF tersebut. Ini saya lakukan sebenarnya karena alasan perpajakan. Expense ratio juga merupakan faktor yang sangat penting dalam pemilihan ETF karena dana ini dimaksudkan sebagai dana pensiun saya sehingga saya memilih biaya sekecil mungkin. Karena ETF sifatnya pasif dan hanya direbalance setahun sekali, biayanya bisa sangat kecil dibandingkan dengan actively managed portfolio.
Semoga bermanfaat! Kalau mungkin disini ada yang tertarik, ini adalah referal link yang akan memberi rekan-rekan gratis 20 EUR transaction credit.
submitted by DefiantAlbatros to finansial [link] [comments]

Javanese History Matrix and Trend in Javanese History (Part I)

Charting the Javanese Identity

JAVANESE HISTORY MATRIX

The matrix below is analytical tool, and not a definitive account of the History of Java.

Sultan Agung 1613 to Treaty of Giyanti 1755 Treaty of Giyanti to Java War 1825 Aftermath of Java War to 1965 Impact of 1965 Cataclysm until Reformasi 1998
EXPANSION AND GOVERNMENT
Expansion South Central Java (1613) + Rest of Central Java, Most of East Java and parts of West Java (1755) Mataram Sultanate Most of Java, Spice Islands, Manado, Bengkulu and (1755) + North Sulawesi and South Sumatra (1825) VOC -Netherlands Most of Java, Spice Islands, North Sulawesi, Bengkulu, South Sumatra (1825) Netherlands / Rest of Indonesia Except Papua Indonesia Annexation of Papua
Government Feudal to Centralized Despotism Looser Control until 1800. Greater Centralization From 1800-1825 Centralized Bureaucracy Centralized Bureaucracy
POPULATION AND ECONOMY
Population 3.5 Million (3) 1825 7-8 Million (3) 1940 48 Million 1971 75 Million (3) 2017 149 Million
Population Density Like Kalimantan Today 30 people / km2 1825 60 people / km2 1940 350 / km2 1971 545 / km2 2017 1090 / km2
Urbanization Rate Overwhelming Rural Overwhelming Rural 5% Urbanization in 1930 12% Urbanization in 1971, 40% in 2000, 62% in 2015
Migration Under Sultan Agung to Sabang, Indramayu, Cirebon Negligible Starting from late 1850s migration to Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo Private migration to outer islands. Worker in Middle East, Malaysia-Singapore and East Asia
Economic System Subsistence Farming, Trading Subsistence Farming, Trading Plantation Economy, Industry, Trading Plantation Economy, Industry, Trading
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
Literacy Estimate <1% Estimate <1% In 1920, 3% for Native Males 0.5% for Females (1) 2018- 92% (2)
Languages Javanese, Javanese-Malay in Pesisir Javanese, Javanese-Malay in Pesisir Javanese-Malay and or Dutch Indonesian - Javanese
RELIGION
Islamicized Pesisir (North Coast) All except for remote mountain areas and Oosthoek All except for remote mountain region Formalization of Islamic practice
Islamization Interior Regions Oosthoek N?A Remote mountain areas
Weak Islamization Oosthoek and remote mountain areas Remote mountain areas Remote mountain areas N/A
Reformist islam N/A Urban Pesisir Pesisir, by mid 19th century move to inland towns All
Christianity N/A Urban Pesisir Protestant Only All of Java, Both Catholic and Protestant Surge in Conversions due to 1965

1For Java and Madura. For natives in the outer islands it was 12% and 3%. In 1930, the literacy rate in Sumatra was 31%, and in Java and Madura 16.2%
2 East Java, Central Java, DIY had some of the lowest literacy rates in Indonesia, and it had to do with the low female literacy rates. The female literacy rate is 90% in 2018 vs 98% in Aceh, West Sumatra. One reason for this is Tanah Java has a higher % of elderly than the rest of Indonesia due to stricter enforcement of family family planning under Suharto and migration. As of 2015 12% of the Javanese Home Provinces is 60 years or older compared to 7% in Sumatra. An older population pulls down the literacy rate.
3 Includes West Java and Madura

TRENDS IN JAVANESE HISTORY 1613-1998

The first two sections, on Expansion and Centralization, and Rise and Fall of Plantation Economy are related in the sense they highlight the importance of elite or vested interest particularly during the earlier colonial period. The last two sections on Malayifcation and Islamization while treated separately, are closely intertwined, which I elaborate when it is relevant.

EXPANSION AND CENTRALIZATION

Whether the occupying entity was the Mataram Sultanate, VOC, the Dutch state or the Republic of Indonesia, from the reign of Sultan Agung to Reformasi 1998 was one of expansion and centralization. In 1613, the Mataram Sultanate occupied a territory that covered only Central Java, by the time Sultan Agung died in 1645, the Mataram Sultanate had controlled all of Java except for Banten, Batavia and part of the Oosthoek. However, the rapid expansion under Sultan Agung and the centralizing administrative reforms introduced by Sultan Agung laid the foundation for the subsequent rebellions and wars of successions that would plague his successors. It was the need for Dutch military assistance and loans to fight these rebellions that indebted the Mataram Sultanate to the VOC. Ironically, the VOC's involvement in the affairs of the Mataram lead to the eventual bankruptcy of the VOC in 1800. Here is the a list of the wars fought between 1613-1755
Outside of the Third Javanese War of Succession, all wars were either wars of conquest or rebellion
There are two views on this period. The first view which is held by most non-Dutch historians was the subsequent rebellions after Sultan Agung was caused poor leadership and lack of islamic spirit by subsequent Mataram rulers. Most Dutch historians and more recent Indonesian historians believe destructive nature of the Sultan conquests and political and administrative structure Sultan Agung had setup in these conquered territories was the source of subsequent grievances.
I take the second view. First the Sultan Agung conquest was devastating for conquered territories, particularly pesisir trading communities and towns. The conquest of Surabaya was very nasty. It involved nine years of war. From 1615-25, five sieges were conducted against Surabaya, and during the last siege they spoiled the water supply and dammed the Brantas River. Secondly, more damaging to the Mataram Sultanate, was the system setup by Sultan Agung to manage conquered territories and rulers.
Prior to Sultan Agung, the Mataram Sultanate operated like Javanese kingdoms before it, when ti conquered lands, the defeated entity would usually become a vassal. However, Sultan Agung reduced the uses of the vassal system, and instead opted a centralized system, where he would appoint an official from the capital, the adipati, to rule the conquered territory, The conquered ruler and much of his family would be moved to the capital often as "hostages" as well as bring captive laborers and craftsmen to build the Mataram capital, as Denys Lombard said the capital became a microcosm of the kingdom
Penguasa Mataram, dimulai Panembahan Hanyakrakusuma, lalu membangun satu sistem -yang disebut de Graaf- pemerintahan paralel: menempatkan seorang adipati sebagai administrator di wilayah taklukan saat penguasa de jure wilayah taklukan tinggal di ibukota Mataram. Keduanya harus tunduk pada perintah penguasa agung di Mataram.
Penempatan beberapa orang-orang taklukan berikut pemimpinnya di ibukota ini bertujuan jelas. Selain untuk memudahkan kontrol atas jajahan, penempatan orang taklukan itu juga untuk memudahkan tersedianya tenaga kerja untuk melakukan apa saja demi kepentingan penguasa.
Trunajaya's rebellion from 1674-80 is often portrayed as an Islamic rebellion against Amangkurat II alliance with the infidels. the VOC. However, the main reason for the revolt had to do with reasons I described above. Trunajaya's father and grandfather were held in such circumstances, and his father was murdered at Amangkurat I‘s court. However, based on written accounts, what Trunajaya want was not to overthrow Amangkurat II, but wanted Amangkurat II to recognize control over his ancestral lands in Madura. Ultimately,,Trunajaya's revolt failed, because the Javanese nobility were reluctant to a Maduraese.
When the Dutch took over from the Mataram Sultanate they continued with the system of adipati, renamed to bupati, and eventually extended it to the outer islands. When Indonesia became independent in 1949, they inherited this system from the Dutch. The centralized system developed under Order Baru was just the system under the Sultan Agung extended throughout the country. Governor and Bupati were often ex-military men, many of them Javanese. The multiethnic elite in Jakarta, in many ways is like the "captured" local elites held by Sultan Agung.
This is recurring theme in Javanese history from 1613-1825, the wars and strife between 1613-1755 was a result of the attempts by Mataram Sultanate to impose centralized control. The VOC restored this equilibrium between 1755-1799. From 1799-1825, the Dutch renewed Agung's attempts at centralization and undermining local elites in their attempts to modernize the system and do away with many of noble privileges. Unfortunately, this was a key factor in causing the Java War. Despite the cruelty of the Cultivation System, because the Dutch brought the local elites into the system

RISE AND FALL OF THE PLANTATION ECONOMY

Like with expansion and centralization of the government structure, the Javanese economy from 1613-1998, went through several stages where the mode of production goes from Feudal (1613-1808), Market experiment (1808-1830), the Semi-Feudal Cultivation System (1830-1873), Market Orientated Liberal and Ethical 1874-1930s and more state intervention after 1949. This section will provide a general overview of the colonial period, while only going into analysis on how it has impacted Javanese identity afterwards. There has been a lot of research on economic history of colonial Java, but most of it is done by Western economic historians. The bulk of the information will come from Colonial state formation and patterns of economic development in Java, 1800-1913 Jan Luiten van Zanden, University of Utrecht, 2010.
Prior to the establishment of the Cultivation System in 1830s, the economic system on Java could be described as feudal.
The period between 1808-1825 that started with Daendels, continued with Raffles and Van der Capellen . These reformers were heavily influenced by the European Enlightenment. While there are differences in what they wanted was to create a system which was.
The policies failed because there was a lack of coin (money) circulating in the local economy), making it difficult for peasants to pay their taxes.. Secondly, these reforms upset the local elites, the village heads and nobility. The impact of this period was largely political-economic, rather the economic There wasn't much change in GDP per capita or in the production of export crops from earlier period.
The after 1830 to 1965, can be divided into two periods, the Cultivation System which lasted from 1830-1873, and period from 1874-1965, which covers Liberal and Ethical period, and first 15 years of independence.
The Cultivation System was a system to use the surplus labor of Javanese peasants to produce export crops through coercion. While the VOC had such a system for Coffee in Priangan region of West Java (all Sunda speaking areas of West Java), it was very limited, with total exports being about 7000 metric tonnes. The reason for abandoning the early reforms from 1799-1825, was as Van den Bosch argued in a memo to King William I in 1829
Because of its distant location, the resulting high transportation costs and the relatively high costs of producing coffee and sugar in Java – the island could not compete with other (Caribbean) colonies on European markets. Moreover, Javanese peasants, because of the richness of their soils and the high yields of rice cultivation, could produce their own subsistence in only a fraction of their labour time; he in fact assumed that 120 days of labour were sufficient for the feeding of a family. The high productivity of rice cultivation also meant that the incentive to switch to coffee (or sugar) was absent
The motive of the Dutch state was to generate revenue to cover the increasing cost of colonial administration, cost of the Java War and Belgium War of Independence in 1830. At one point, transfer from Java covered 3.5% of Dutch GDP and 30% of the Netherlands government budget. It was successful in bringing the local elite (priyayi and village heads) into the system, and restoring the privileges of the priyayi like allowing sons to inherit post).
The consensus was the Cultivation system was a success from 1830-1840s, exports of cash crops like Tobacco, Sugar and Coffee grew by several fold. One reason for its initial success was the introduction of cheap copper coins into the economy. Per capita GDP was stable until the mid 1840s, than you see a drop in per capita consumption. In 1845/46 and 1849/50 there were two famines on Java. You don't see a recovery in per capita consumption until the 1880s.
By 1850, the colonial administration started to introduce market mechanism within the cultivation system, corvee labor was gradually replaced with free wage labor. While the Max Havellar did have an impact in changing colonial policy, the policy had started to change before the book was released in 1860. More favorable conditions begin to emerge in the 1860s that allowed market economy to take root that weren't present in 1820s -- more professional bureaucracy, better infrastructure, European entrepreneurs with capital and larger labor pool due to increased population.
The subsequent period between 1874-1965 which covers both the Liberal and Ethical periods, at the beginning wasn't a complete break from the cultivation system. Coercion was still use, but was gradually phased out as wage labor became more important. In this period you see the gradual development of large plantations. This was most notable in the sugar industry. By 1920s, some of the sugar plantations on Java were very large. Java and Cuba supplied about 50% of the exported sugar in the world. Because of limited land and large pool of labor, Java's sugar industry was was focused on maximizing yield through using latest scientific methods, research and increase mechanization.
During this period you start to see a shift in dominance of Java to the outer islands in the export of cash crops like rubber, coffee and tea. Value of Java's coffee exports fell by 70% from 1880 to 1830. By 1930 the outer islands coffee export was twice those of Java. The same with rubber. The only export crop java was dominate in was sugar, most likely because the investment in sugar mills and factories and nature of sugar plantations in the Dutch East Indies which was labor intensive.
By the mid 19th century, Javanese begun to migrate to the outer islands and Malaya. In 1947, in Malaya out of a population 5 Million, there were 190,000 Javanese out of population of 300,000 individuals from the Dutch East Indies. Most of the Javanese came as contract labor or small land holders. Many of the Javanese travelled to Singapore and Malaya to evade Dutch quotas on who could travel to the Haj, every year.
Between the mid-19th and early 20th centuries, around 2,000 to 7,000 Javanese made the pilgrimage to Mecca annually via Singapore, The Javanese pilgrims would often work in Singapore and Malaya for months, or even years, to earn sufficient funds for their pilgrimage. On the return journey, some Javanese pilgrims would settle in Singapore or work on the island for a few years to settle their debts.
Within the Dutch East Indies itself, the first Javanese contract laborers arrived in East Sumatra (Deli) in 1880, after the Chinese and the British colonial government made it more difficult for Chinese and Tamils to work in the Dutch East Indies.
Oleh karena itu, tahun 1880 awal kedatangan buruh Jawa ke Deli, yaitu masukya 150 orang...Pada tahun 1905, diantara 33.961 orang kuli kontrak Jawa terdapat 6.290 orang perempuan...Pada tahun 1926, kuli kontrak laki-laki Jawa berjumlah 142.000 orang, sedangkan buruh wanita Jawa 52.400 orang. Namun, catatan Belanda lainnya menunjukkan tahun 1920 saja, jumlah orang Jawa di Sumatera Timur ada 353.551 orang, melebihi jumlah orang Melayu yang tercatat 285.553 orang.
The first transmigration settlement in Indonesia since Sultan's Agung settlement of West Java was setup in Desa Bagelen in Lamping in 1905. By 1940, the colonial government had sent 65,000 transmigrants from Java. From 1949-1965, Sukarno sent another 85,000 transmigrants.
The period from 1949-1965 was really a transition period for the economy on Java, it was still a plantation economy, even when Dutch and later on Chinese plantations were seized between 1957-59. The move away from a plantation economy starts in 1970s with Order Baru. There are two components to this shift, the first is the massive transmigration programs launched by the Suharto government which shipped between 4.5-5 Million people from 1966-1996 from East Java, Central Java and Bali to the outer islands. This provided the outer islands what they lacked which was manpower. What this did was develop the bulk of the plantation economy in the outer islands. Java still grew cash crops like coffee, sugar and tea, but production levels grew slowly.
Starting from the early 1970s, the yields on sugarcane dropped from 9 Metric Tonnes a Hectare to 5.74 Metric Tonnes a Hectare in 2010. In 1940 it was 17 Tonnes a hectare. The reason for this drop was prior to the 1975, farmers used irrigated sawah land to grow sugarcane, after that they increasingly used marginal non-irrigated land, as the government focused on rice self-sufficiency. Sugar cane was grown to supplement income, not as the main crop. Secondly the big drop from yields in 1940, was during the colonial period, there were large vertical sugar estates which controlled everything from growing, harvesting, milling and refining.
As it moved away from a plantation economy, there wasn't enough work to absorb the number of new workers entering the labor force.As a result, from 1980-90, the Suharto government signed formal agreements between countries outside Malaysia and Singapore, to hire Indonesian workers - Arab countries, Hong Kong and Taiwan
With the opening up of the Indonesia economy in 1986, Indonesia began to attract a lot of overseas investment to develop light manufacturing in Indonesia, particular in West Java and Batam, and to a lesser extent East Java.

MALAYIFICATION

Prior to the Dutch setting up the Cultivation System, most Javanese outside select trading and religious communities in Pesisir had little exposure to Malay. In the 17th century during Trunajaya Rebellion, the Dutch were still using Dutch-Javanese interpreters when communicating with the Mataram nobility, At least among the Mataram nobility and courtier, knowledge of Malay wasn't common. This also applied to the vast majority of Sundanese and Balinese as well. However, in Pesisir trading communities Malay was more widely used. However, by the mid 18th century this had changed. The Dutch and Javanese priyayi communicated with each other in Malay, By the 19th century, the Dutch government took greater control over the lives of ordinary Javanese and Sundanese. First there was a greater presence of Malay speakers in the interior, both Dutch, Chinese and native from other island spoke Malay. KNIL Christian soldiers from Eastern Indonesia communicated primarily in Malay, the language of communication for lower ranks of the KNIL. A creolized Malay had replaced the native tongues of the vast majority of Christian Ambonese by the 19th century. Like the VOC staff before them, most Dutch civil servants during the start of the cultivation system communicated with natives using Malay. It was only by mid-19th century were they formally trained in the languages of the people they were supposed to administer.
The education policy of the colonial government flucated, during the earlier period between 1850s, they started to setup state schools that taught in both the local languages and Malay. Of course during this time this policy only applied to the Sundanese and Javanese, and did not apply to schools in the Spice Island or Manado where they would used Malay. On java, as students progressed through the system, more Malay was used, as it was considered the lingua franca and "modern". This didn't include the pesantren and mission schools. In the pesantren,, they would be using Arabic and Javanese kawi/pegon for commentary. Prior to the 19th century, even Pesantren in Madura nad Sunda would be using Javanese. In the Catholic mission schools setup in 1890s in Central Java, the main language of instruction was Dutch, but Javanese and Malay were also taught.
While the majority of Javanese didn't start to learn Malay/Indonesian until after independence, by the period between 1900-1942,
Malay was the language of youth and modernity, of newness and experiment, and the forms of Malay that were used on Java in writing and printing were leaning on the Malay that was spoken in the urban centres of Batavia, Semarang, Solo, [and] Soerabaja rather than on the written forms that were preserved in manuscripts in the Malay heartland
Malay united the various racial groups that lived in the cities - natives, Chinese, Arabs, Eurasians and Europeans. That being said, different races would add their own words and lexicon in their use of Malay. Peranakan newspapers Sin Po (1910–1965) and Keng Po (1923–1961) would have have Hokkien loan words.
By the late 19th century, besides the Malay and Dutch newspapers,there were also Javanese publications. By the 1920s, there were Sundanese newspapers, Batak newspapers etc. Many of them continued to exist after independence, but most died off in the late 1960s and 1970s.
At the same time the Javanese nobility and middle classes (both pribumi and Chinese) preferred that their children be educated in Dutch, because a Dutch education was considered superior to a Malay education. This bias lasted until the 1957, when the Dutch medium schools were closed. I knew a person who was born in 1950, and who's father was a KNIL-TNI officer, and he went to a Dutch language kindergarten. It wasn't just a matter of Dutch being a Western language, many Javanese considered Malay to be inferior and less expressive. One of Budi Utomo's goals in 1910s was to increase availability of Dutch educated to natives. This was part of the impetus behind the Teman Siswa and Kartini Schools, which taught Javanese and Dutch.
Malayification intensified under the Japanese when they banned Dutch and some regional language publications. When the Dutch came back in 1945, Dutch schools reopened. However, Malayification continued and accelerated after independence with the expansion of public mass education with Bahasa Indonesia as the national language.

Javanese Islamization and Fragmentation (Part II)

submitted by annadpk to indonesia [link] [comments]

3D Position and Acoustic Sensor Market Overview and Scope 2020 to 2024 | Key Players: , ASUSTeK Computer , Cognex Corporation , etc.

3D Position and Acoustic Sensor Market Overview and Scope 2020 to 2024 | Key Players: , ASUSTeK Computer , Cognex Corporation , etc.
https://preview.redd.it/5h1ovacjevd41.jpg?width=700&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f3ad418fcae1c39c65e08d0ac441f33e321d7e83
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L'Unione del Italia - The Italian Union

General Info:

Name: Italy, officially known as L'Unione del Popolo Italiano. ["The Union of the Italian People"].
Capital: Roma, with 'Secondary' Regional Capitals in Milano and Napoli.
Flag: =
Motto: Fede, Speranza e Carità ["Faith, Hope, and Charity"] - Libero dalle Alpi verso l'Adriatico ["Free from the Alps to the Adriatic"] - Forza, Italia! ["Forwards, Italy!"] - Dammi la mano pronta piuttosto che la lingua pronta. ["Give me the ready hand rather than the ready tongue."]
National Anthem: Il Canto Degli Italiani
Unofficial Anthems/Patriotic Songs: Bella Ciao - L'Internazionale - Inno Dei Lavoratori - Contessa - Inno Brigata Sassari

A MAP

History:

[There's a lot. I'm sorry.]
The emergence of parahumans in the sixties could not have come at a worse time for Italy. The burgeoning republic had finally begun to pull itself together after the second World War, with the economy slowly but surely picking up steam, thanks to the newly formed European Economic Community. Efforts to bridge the cultural gaps between Italy's regions, most notably those of the North and South, were well underway, and Italy was truly coming into it's own as a real nation-state, rather than a collection of similar regions.
The advent of parahumans changed that. The chaos and shock surrounding the appearance of people with such powerful abilities meant that the Italian government had to adapt rapidly to the new circumstances brought on by the emergence of parahumans. The various paramilitary and radical groups that had simmered in Italy's political underground for so long realized that this may well be their only chance to topple the existing government before the Republic became too stable. Communists in particular were particularly ardent in this regard, and Communist cells and societies all over Italy began to connect and revolt. All across Italy, the call went up for the workers of the world to unite. South Italy, in particular, was swamped by multiple Socialist and Communist militia groups, most notably Il Brigato Rosso (The Red Brigade), and Lotta Eterno (Endless Struggle). Prime Minister Amintore Fanfani was quick to declare martial law, and by 1966, the Anni di Piombo (The Years of Lead) had begun.
The Leftist violence spearheaded by Lotta Eterno and Il Brigato Rosso would be met in kind by far right terror under the neo-fascist groups Ordine Nero (Black Order) and Terza Posizione (Third Position). Both groups began to escalate the fighting, as paramilitary groups clashed with each other and the Italian Army, which attempted to preserve the Republic as best it could.
While Communism had always been seen as the lesser of the two evils in Italy, especially when contrasted with Fascism, many people were more comfortable in keeping their head down and minding their own business. While Fascists found some strongholds in Northern Italy, where Mussilini's influence had been the most heavy, the Communists found their own support bases in the south of the country, particularly in rural areas. But for the most part, prevailing opinion was to keep to oneself, and attempt to live life as normally as possible. For the meantime, the clashes between paramilitary groups and the army remained relatively sparse.
Public opinion began to shift when the United States and NATO formally suspended Operation Gladio within Italy, leaving the Italian people feeling abandoned by the state they had seen as their new ally. The Italian Parliament would occupy itself with distancing itself from the USA and NATO, rather than working on solving the crises within their own nation. With the issue of parahumans still unsolved, and a civil war raging on, the Republican government was being pushed to it's breaking point. Prime Minister Fanfani instituted policies of censorship, hoping to sweep the unrest in Italy under the rug while his administration handled the parahuman problem. Fanfani promised parliament that the clashing rebel groups would destroy each other, leaving the Republic intact.
By 1971, the few fascist groups that had remained in Italy were all but wiped out, fleeing back underground, where they would either fade into obscurity or be hunted down by Communist sympathizers. Fanfani's gambit had failed, and he now had to pit his Republican Army against an ever-growing communist front. The Italian Civil War had begun. Fearing for the worst, Parliament kept Fanfani in power, worried that any further destabilization of the government would simply make the Republic's grip on power slip even further.
For the next four years, entire cities would become the site of guerrilla battles between the Republican army and Communist cells. Car bombings and surprise attacks were the norm, and many of Italy's cities became ranked as some of the most dangerous in the world. The Civil War was a bloody stalemate, in which the Republican army couldn't fully destroy the Communists, and the Communists couldn't deplete the Republican army's superior numbers. While there was limited support for the Communists among civilians, following the defeat of the Fascist groups, it quickly dropped off and plateaued. The war had become one of attrition.
It wouldn't be until 1975 that a man named Iamberto Gaspari, an Army General tasked with the defense of Rome, simply marched some of his troops into the Italian Parliament building, the Palazzo di Moncitorio, while Parliament was in session, and declared a coup d'etat. The Parliament had no choice but to accept Gaspari's declaration, the Army sided with him, and the embattled Communist rebels were too depleted and fragmented to actively oppose this new power. The Years of Lead were over.
For a few years from 1975 to 1978, Italy was essentially ruled by a military Junta under Gaspari, while Gaspari and his inner circle drew up plans for their new Italy. Gaspari was obsessed with the Romantacist thinkers of the 19th century, particularly Giuseppe Mazzini, who had advocated for full popular sovereignty in a unified Italy, and Giuseppe Garibaldi, who had become a champion of the common man through his emancipation of Southern Italy from monarchist rule. It was with these men in mind that Gaspari drafted a new constitution, and a new Italy.

Government:

Ideology: Italy''s government heavily leans on the ideas of popular sovereignty and rule by the people. Plebiscites, strikes, and protests are common, and often effective. The Italian founding fathers, most notably Giuseppe Garibaldi, and Giuseppe Mazzini, figure prominently in Italian political ideology. For the most part, the other two major founders, King Vittore Emmanuele II and Camilo Benso, Count of Cavour, are often left out on account of their connection with the monarchy. Gaspari's ideals, despite not being explicitly Communist, resulted in a state that often operates left of center politically and economically.
Structure: Italy's government is divided into three branches, with the country itself being divided into 18 provinces, and three cultural regions. Parties aren't as prominent as they are in other democracies, although politicians will often identify with a central ideology, in this case usually leftist schools of thought, although in recent years some center-right movements have been gaining limited popularity.
The first branch of the government is the legislative, comprised of a single house, called the Senate. It's comprised of 300 Senators, 100 from each cultural region, elected by a popular vote. Where these Senators are elected is decided based on region, but most regions have the 50 largest municipalities in a region select a Senator. These Senators have the power to draft laws, but not pass them. Senators are elected every three years, with no term limit. A senator can also be kicked out of office by way of a plebiscite, but this is fairly rare.
The second branch, the executive, has three members, collectively called Consuls. One member comes from each of the cultural regions of Italy, one from North Italy, called Il/La Federato/a, one from Central Italy, called Il/la Tribuno/a and one from South Italy, called Il Capo. These people are selected by popular vote, after announcing their candidacy and issuing a petition which gets at least 100,000 signatures. They mostly only approve laws that the Senate has decided to form. However, they can also suggest legislation to the Senate on behalf of their constituents, and can call for plebiscites, once again at the request of their constituents. Government agencies and the armed forces are considered part of this branch too, and the heads of these departments form a council called Il Voce.
Consuls stay in power until they are voted out of office, either at the request of the Senate, or through a plebiscite.
The final branch is the judicial, and is comprised of 15 justices, five from each cultural region. These people review laws that the people have decided must be reviewed by plebiscite.
The people are also considered to be an unofficial fourth branch of government. Significant public outcry can trigger the calling of a plebiscite, sometimes even without approval from Consuls. These plebiscites are direct votes among all Italian citizens, and can either ratify, propose, or amend laws.
For the most part, each Province uses a similar governmental structure to govern itself, with the exception of Sicily, which has been under a military tribunal since 1979.

Leadership:

  • Il Federato- Antonio Caroccio: The youngest of the Consuls at age 36, Carrocio has distinguished himself in the Northern Region as an economic reformer, and claims responsibility for several major trade deals with the Balkan States. Caroccio is also the most conservative of the three Consuls, although compared to conservatives in other European countries, he's probably considered somewhat left of center.
  • La Tribuna- Maria Cavillaro: Cavillaro has been involved in government since the Union's inception, and is one of the only living members of the Italian government to have known Iamberto Gaspari personally, serving as his personal assistant during the Civil War, and later his Chief of Staff. She has just recently moved into a leadership role, taking the office of Tribuna in 2011. She has a reputation amongst the people as a hardline traditionalist, sticking closely to the original ideals of the Revolution.
  • Il Capo- Torquato Noli: By far the most radical of the three, Noli is also the longest-serving consul, holding power since 1996. He is famous for impassioned speeches and raving outbursts. Hailing from a family of poor farmers in Campania, Noli rose through the ranks of Italian government by way of a successful military career. He's a longtime champion of the people, and was the foremost proponent of cleaning up Sicily following the Geb attack.
  • Praetoriano- Vincenza Lovere, Il Faro.

Military:

Italy's conventional military is one of the largest in Europe, owing to border tension with her neighbors and the situation in Sicily. Italy has a Army [L'Esercito Italiano], a Navy [La Marina Militare], an Air Force [L'Aeronautica Militare], and a Military Police/Gendarmerie [La Arma Dei Carabinieri].
Italy's navy is particularly strong, boasting a pair of aircraft carriers, the Giuseppe Garibaldi and the Giuseppe Mazzini. The preface for all Italian ships is Nave da Guerra Popolare, abbreviated as NGP.
Italy's total active personnel numbers hover at around 550,000, with an additional 150,000 serving in the nation's Carabineri.
Italy also boasts a national police force in the form of the Polizia di Stato, which is run by the Department of Public Security. Italy has two major intelligence organizations, Il Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Interno, which deals with internal intelligence and law enforcement, much like the FBI in the United States, and Il Servizio per le Sicurezza D'Italia, which handles external and international threats, much like the United States' CIA.

Parahumans in the Military:

L'Elmeti:

L'Elmeti, taking it's name from the old Italian word for a non-noble knight, is the Parahuman wing of the Italian military. Similar to the Protectorate, L'Elmeti are comprised of all government-commissioned capes in Italy, along with some rogues, which operate under limited time contracts.
L'Elmeti were formed in 1979, as a means to rectify Italy's Parahuman problem and to combat Il Battaglione Atomico (The Atomic Battalion), who appeared after Geb's attack on Sicily. L'Elmeti have subsequently become one of the premier parahuman organizations, specializing in counter-terrorism operations. They are lead by Il Praetoriano, a position selected by the Chiefs of Staff of the Military, rather than by way of a plebiscite. They are directly controlled by the Italian Military, and are subject to the commands of the Chiefs of Staff.

Non-Parahuman Response Forces:

A special branch of Carabinieri, called I Vigile ["The Vigilant"] are responsible for responding to any Parahuman threats within Italy, similar to the United State's PRT. However, I Vigile put more emphasis on quality rather than quantity, and are far tougher on Parahuman crime than the PRT is. Squads are assisted by Parahumans far more often than they are in the States.

Demographics:

The population of Italy sits at about 70 million. While Italians still make up a vast majority of the population, Italy's status as the gateway to Europe, especially from Africa and the Middle East, and the subsequent opening of the borders in the 90s has seen large influxes of migrants from those areas, as well as the Balkans, to a lesser extent. A vast majority of these migrants have settled in South Italy, which has grown to have the largest population of the three cultural regions, with Campania surpassing Lombardy as the most populous province.

Economy:

The Italian economy is a mixed capitalist economy, although the influence of Socialism is prevalent. Italy's economy is primarily based in manufacturing and agriculture. The Italian economy is characterized by smaller businesses, with large conglomerates and factory farms being far less common than in other European countries, save for the automotive sector, which boasts several large companies. Italy's economy ranks as the fourth largest in Europe, and is among the largest in the world.
Italy's largest exports are cars, agricultural goods, and fashion, which has seen a revival starting in the 90s. Tourism has also begun to grow very quickly as an industry, owing to the large amounts of historical landmarks and works of art within Italy.

Culture:

Italy has a very high quality of life, consistently ranking in the upper 20s in terms of Human Development Index, and a very high life expectancy. However, Italy's main problem in terms of wealth comes in the form of a very large wealth gap, specifically between the North and South of the country. The North remains highly industrialized and rich, while the South is primarily agricultural. The South also hosts large immigrant communities, and the bureaucracy of the Union has been slow to mobilize resources to provide aid for them. The poorest communities are found in the South, as are the areas most affected by crime.
However, on a societal level, Italy's cultural identity varies from place to place. While people may have loyalties to their region or province, for the most part, they identify as Italians first. Immigrants from the Balkans and North Africa add to a rich cultural mosaic that has become, in recent years, the pride of the country. In several provinces, minorities have their languages recognized as co-official with Italian.
Italy has freedom of religion, although the most prevalent religion remains Catholicism. Islam and various Orthodox sects have fairly large minority populations, primarily amongst immigrants. Small pockets of Jews and Protestants also exist, primarily in the provinces of Bruttio and Trentino, respectively.

What are the Circumstances of Parahumans/Normals?

Capes in Italy are usually called Dotati or Poteri ["Gifted" or "Powered"]. The term Dotato generally is only used in reference to capes who work for the government.
Parahumans are usually regarded with some degree of suspicion in Italy, unless they work for the government. Capes are very strongly encouraged to work for the government, or at least heed their orders. The actions of the Atomic Battalion have seen to it that capes who make and effort to distance themselves from government control are largely shunned. The South, in particular, is distrustful of Parahumans.
L'Elmeti are incredibly highly regarded in Italian society, and are almost seen as above common people, especially in the case of extremely famous individuals. Unlike in the Protectorate, where capes gain a sort of celebrity status, Italian capes are usually held in very high esteem, almost like high-ranking government officials.

Diplomacy:

What do People Think of Italy?

Italy has a reputation as the black sheep of Europe, although the end of the Cold War did a lot to ease tensions between mainland Europe and the Union. Most people who aren't incredibly well educated in the specifics of Italian government often hold the view that Italy is essentially a Communist country, although this is far from the truth. Within Europe, however, most people regard Italians as fellow Europeans. Slightly off the beaten path in terms of government, but otherwise not too bad.

Foreign Relations:

North America:
  • The United States of America: While the typical Walmart scooter-riding American may consider Italy to be the last major Communist holdout, the United States government itself has cordial relations with the Union, and engages in modest amounts of trade.
  • Mexico: Mexico is Italy's closest ally in North America, and the two nations engage in extensive trade, and have lent aid to each other multiple times since 1975. Mexico was also the first North American country to recognize Gaspari's new government in Italy.
Europe: Italy maintains cordial relationships with most of Europe, although they have a bit of territorial chafing with France on account of the city of Nice, which more radical Italian politicians claim should be part of the Union. However, this has done little to erode relations between the two powers on a major scale.
South America: Italy has close relationships with most South American nations, preferring to trade with them over most other nations.
  • Argentina: With such a large Italian immigrant population, Argentina is Italy's closest ally in the Americas, and a valuable trade partner.
Africa: Italy has made an effort to encourage immigration from North Africa, and as such harbors fairly good relations with the states in that area. Beyond that, however, perceptions of Italy are fairly rocky, owing to Italian invasions during the Second World War, particularly in Ethiopia and Somalia. Italy seems to have no intentions of improving relations with any African countries at the moment that do not border the Mediterranean.
Asia: Italy's focus remains locked to the Western Hemisphere for the time being, although they have expressed interest in supplying troops to keep order in the Arabian Strife, they have not taken any over actions as of yet.
Oceania: Italy imports most of their oil from Indonesia, and has issued minor condemnations of Brunei's monarchy. Otherwise, not too much.

Crime:

Of course, the Mafia has remained a central force in Italian crime since the Second World War. While Sicily's destruction by Geb had proven to be disastrous for the Sicilian Mafia [Cosa Nostra], there are still many other Mafia organizations that have spread across Italy, primarily in the South. They are:
  • L'Ndraghetnta: Operate primarily in Bruttio, and have smaller satellite operations in the Balkans. Make most of their money from drug trafficking in Albania and Croatia, although they've begun to make moves into construction, which has lead them to come into conflict with...
  • La Camorra: By far the largest Mafia group in Italy, the Neapolitan Camorra has gained a reputation in Italy as being the most brutal and dangerous of the Mafias. Operating in scattered gangs, as opposed to a single large family, the Camorra has been rooted into the fabric of the society of Napoli for several decades now. Only recently has this notorious Mafia begun to see it's influence waver. They primarily operate in construction and extortion, especially in the form of the Pizzo, or protection money.
  • La Sacra Corna Unita: Operating out of the north of Salento, Le Corne, as they're colloquially known, are the weakest of the major Mafias in Italy. Working almost exclusively in the realm of extortion, Le Corne have been fighting a losing battle against the Camorra for several years.
  • Le Camice Bianche: The only major Mafia in Northern Italy, Le Camice primarily take the form of street gangs in Milan and Torino. They're a relatively new player in the organized crime scene, and have been largely kept under control by the Italian government, essentially suppressed before they could really establish any sort of major foothold.
  • Mafia Centrale: A catch-all term used to describe the various gangs, families, and clans of Mafias in Central Italy. For the most part, all these groups operate in petty crime and robbery, far from being major players on the national level.

The Sicilian Problem:

At the tail end of Gaspari's military Junta, only months after Italy had transitioned to her new system of government, Geb attacked Sicily. The earthquakes caused by the the endbringer caused the reactors built on the island by the Tinker Rutherford to explode, releasing massive amounts of radiation into the land of central Sicily, and rendering the interior extremely irradiated. Italy was quick to quarantine Sicily, setting up a naval blockade of the island.
The survivors of Sicily who had triggered as a result of the fallout formed a rebel group, called Il Battaglione Atomico [Sicilian: L'Asercitu Atumicu] , The Atomic Battalion. The Battalion would engage in multiple acts of terror along the coast of Sicily, attacking Italian naval vessels, and some members even made it onto the mainland, where they began to rampage across Bruttio. The conventional military was met with some success, but found itself unable to deal a final blow to the Battalion. Gaspari sought a solution. Now serving as a Il Federato, Gaspari called for a team of parahumans to rally under his control to defeat the Battalion. Among the capes who answered the call was Castore, an incredibly powerful Brute who hailed from Torino, and would go on to work very closely with Gaspari to fight the Battalion on the mainland, later going on to become the first Praetoriano of L'Elmeti following the defeat of the mainland Battalion in 1982.
With the Battalion sent back to Sicily, the problem was seen as solved, with the blockade being reestablished, now with the aid of the newly formed Elmeti. For a little over a decade, the fear that the Battalion had spread across Italy in the early 80s was enough to keep people from talking about Sicily. But in the South, resentment began to grow. Starting in 1996, spearheaded by the newly elected Capo, Torquato Noli, calls to begin to clean up and repopulate Sicily began to become more and more common. Despite initially being dismissed as a flash in the pan by most members of the Italian government, Noli and his supporters did not yield, eventually attracting international attention to the matter. Eventually, the tables began to turn in Roma.
In 1998, with the blessing and aid of the UN, Italy slightly loosened the blockade of Sicily to begin cleaning up the irradiated regions of Sicily, starting with the old capital, Palermo. Operazione Mille, as it was called, was and still is the largest humanitarian relief effort in history, employing hundreds of thousands of normal humans, and thousands of capes. With Parahuman assistance, Sicily has begun to have marginally more habitable areas near the coasts, which now extends just past the old borders of the city of Catania. These areas are still difficult to live in, and as a result the actual population of Sicily, not counting relief workers, sits at around 200,000 people.
Sicily remains a sore point as far as Italian policy goes, but has also come to be seen as a sort of great patriotic undertaking, something all Italians can strive for together, to display the strength and perseverance of this new Italy.
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