Halo halo! Mungkin ini agak OOT karena kasusnya untuk di luar Indonesia, tapi saya rasa informasi ini mungkin berguna untuk orang-orang Indonesia yang sedang merantau ke Eropa (dan sepertinya cukup banyak redittor Indonesia yang berdomisili di luar). Saya sendiri berharap ada informasi seperti ini ketika saya memutuskan untuk memulai investasi tahun lalu.
Tahun lalu ketika saya memutuskan untuk investasi, saya mencari informasi di sub eupersonalfinance
. Saya kemudian memutuskan untuk investasi di ETF
. Untuk yang belum tahu tentang ETF, itu adalah semacam saham index. Kalau sudah pernah dengar tentang Vanguard, produk mereka sebenarnya adalah ETF. Setelah itu saya harus membuat pilihan mengenai broker yang akan saya gunakan. Saat itu ada beberapa broker yang saya pertimbangkan:
- Interactive Broker
IB adalah pilihan yang menarik karena mereka sebenarnya sudah cukup establish, sayangnya inactivity fee mereka cukup tinggi sehingga tidak cocok untuk yang modal kecil (di bawah EUR 25,000). Trading212 cukup menarik tapi sepertinya kurang banyak review yang meyakinkan. Untuk eToro sendiri sebenarnya cukup menarik terutama karena mereka marketingnya cukup agresif, dan ide social trading membuat ide investasi menjadi lebih gamified dan mudah diakses. Sayangnya seperti-nya fee structurenya kurang jelas sehingga saya pun menghindari jasa mereka. Pilihan saya jatuh kepada DEGIRO. Memang saat itu saya mulai investasi dengan teman yang seorang manajer investasi di Blackrock sehingga saya banyak meminta pendapat dia. Kami berdua pun memutuskan untuk memulai portfolio kami di DEGIRO.
Proses pendaftaran DEGIRO sendiri cukup straightforward. Karena DEGIRO hanya bekerja dengan bahasa lokal, saya diarahkan oleh CS untuk membuka akun di DEGIRO Irlandia agar bisa menggunakan bahasa Inggris. Kemudian saya harus menambahkan rekening bank. Hampir semua rekening bank di Uni Eropa (IBAN) diterima kecuali beberapa negara seperti: Bulgaria, Kroasia, Siprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta dan Romania.
Karena kebetulan rekening bank saya memiliki IBAN Jerman, saya bisa membuka rekening tanpa masalah. DEGIRO juga meminta nomor akun pajak, dan karena saya berdomisili di Italia maka saya juga tidak ada masalah. Saya sempat membaca beberapa masalah tentang nasabah yang berdomisili pajak di negara yang tidak terdaftar, katanya setelah beberapa lama mereka harus menutup rekening dengan DEGIRO dan semua posisi mereka harus dijual. Saya sendiri diminta akun pajak sekitar 8 bulan setelah saya mulai berinvestasi.
Selain masalah domisili dan rekening bank, saya juga harus memilih jenis rekening. Ada 2 jenis rekening: custody dan basic.
- Pro: Tidak ada dividend processing fee. Artinya penerimaan dividen tidak dikenai biaya tambahan; bisa mengganti akun ke active atau trading account yang bisa menggunakan 50% atau 100% dari debit margin untuk debit money (untuk yang tertarik active trading)
- Con: DEGIRO berhak meminjamkan saham ke pihak ketiga. Walaupun mekanismenya sangat kompleks dan sangat kecil kemungkinan nasabah kehilangan saham, investor yang lebih hati2 mungkin kurang suka dengan hal ini
- Pro: Lebih aman karena tidak ada peminjaman saham ke pihak ketiga
- Con: ada dividend processing fee sebesar EUR 1 + 3% dividen (maksimum EUR 10); tidak bisa derivative trading
Karena saya berminat hanya untuk ETF, saya memutuskan untuk mengambil akun custody.
Ada beberapa biaya yang harus diperhatikan ketika menggunakan DEGIRO. Untuk detilnya bisa dicek di link berikut:
Secara umum, fee yang harus diperhatikan adalah:
- Connectivity fee: ongkos untuk mengakses satu bursa. kalau mengakses lebih dari satu bursa maka biaya akan tergantung pada berapa banyak bursa yang diakses. biaya dihitung per tahun. Sekitar EUR 2.50 per bursa per tahun.
- Biaya transaksi: Setiap transaksi beli atau jual dikenakan biaya, tergantung pada jenis instrumen dan bursa yang diakses. Untuk ETF sendiri biasanya biaya sekitar EUR 2 + 0.03%, tetapi setiap bulan DEGIRO menyediakan daftar ETF yang gratis biaya transaksi
- Biaya tukar: 0.10%
- Price feed: sebagian besar gratis, tapi ada beberapa yang berbayar
- Biaya transfer posisi dari dan ke DEGIRO: kurang lebih EUR 10
- dan beberapa biaya lainnya yang spesifik situasi.
Keuntungan DEGIRO menurut saya adalah tidak adanya inactivity fee. Selain itu deposit dan withdrawal juga gratis, kuran lebih dalam 3 hari kerja.
Saya sudah memegang posisi ETF di DEGIRO sejak bulan April 2019. Saya sendiri tidak pernah kena masalah dan semuanya cukup lancar. Spread yang ditawarkan cukup masuk akal, dan trading terjadi real time. Selain itu DEGIRO juga menyediakan aplikasi web dan ponsel yang cukup mudah dimengerti dan dioperasikan. Walaupun demikian, saya rasa ketika kapital saya mencapai 25k EUR mungkin saya juga akan bermigrasi ke IB yang sudah lebih established walaupun lebih mahal.
Untuk sekarang ini berikut adalah posisi saya, kalau rekan-rekan tertarik dengan portfolio ETF:
|Nama ||ISIN ||Ticker ||Expense Ratio ||Exchange |
|iShares Core MSCI Emerging Markets IMI UCITS ETF (Acc) ||IE00BKM4GZ66 ||EMIM ||0.18% pa ||Euronext Amsterdam |
|iShares Core MSCI World UCITS ETF USD (Acc) ||IE00B4L5Y983 ||IWDA ||0.20% pa ||Euronext Amsterdam |
|iShares Nasdaq 100 UCITS ETF (Acc) ||IE00B53SZB19 ||CNDX ||0.33% pa ||Euronext Amsterdam |
Untuk yang banyak mendengar tentang Vanguard SP500, mungkin akan tertarik dengan CSPX
dengan expense ratio 0.07% pa. CSPX adalah produk Blackrock yang mengikuti SP500 dengan tracking error cukup rendah. Alasan saya memilih instrumen tersebut adalah sebagai berikut:
- EMIM: ETF ini cukup terekspos dengan saham-saham perusahaan di Asia Timur (China 34%, Taiwan 13%, Korea 12%, India 10%) di sektor yang sedang kuat (22% finansial, 17% IT). Banyak yang menganggap bahwa EMIM terlalu beresiko, tetapi saya rasa mungkin saya juga terpengaruh home bias.
- IWDA: ETF ini adalah ETF yang cukup generik. Biasanya untuk investor2 dengan lazy portfolio yang terdiri dari 1 ETF pilihannya adalah antara IWDA yang terekspos world atau CSPX yang lebih ke AS. CSPX terekspos 99.82% pasar AS sementara IWDA hanya 63.77% (sisanya negara2 berkembang lainnya). 3 besar sektor IWDA adalah IT, finance, dan healthcare.
- CNDX: ETF ini sebenarnya adalah iseng2 berhadiah untuk saya. CNDX mengikuti pergerakan NASDAQ dan hanya terdiri dari 4 negara: AS, China, Netherlands, dan Israel. Lebih dari separuh investasinya ada di sektor IT dan komunikasi, yang menunjukkan eksposure terhadap tech sector. Sebenarnya dengan memilih CNDX sebagai fund ketiga saya, saya overexposed pada AS dan tech sector.
Kalau rekan-rekan perhatikan, semua ETF pilihan saya adalah accumulative yang berarti saya tidak menerima dividen, melainkan dividen akan langsung diinvestasikan kembali di ETF tersebut. Ini saya lakukan sebenarnya karena alasan perpajakan. Expense ratio juga merupakan faktor yang sangat penting dalam pemilihan ETF karena dana ini dimaksudkan sebagai dana pensiun saya sehingga saya memilih biaya sekecil mungkin. Karena ETF sifatnya pasif dan hanya direbalance setahun sekali, biayanya bisa sangat kecil dibandingkan dengan actively managed portfolio.
Semoga bermanfaat! Kalau mungkin disini ada yang tertarik, ini adalah referal link
yang akan memberi rekan-rekan gratis 20 EUR transaction credit.
JAVANESE HISTORY MATRIX
The matrix below is analytical tool, and not a definitive account of the History of Java.
| ||Sultan Agung 1613 to Treaty of Giyanti 1755 ||Treaty of Giyanti to Java War 1825 ||Aftermath of Java War to 1965 ||Impact of 1965 Cataclysm until Reformasi 1998 |
|EXPANSION AND GOVERNMENT || || || || |
|Expansion ||South Central Java (1613) + Rest of Central Java, Most of East Java and parts of West Java (1755) Mataram Sultanate ||Most of Java, Spice Islands, Manado, Bengkulu and (1755) + North Sulawesi and South Sumatra (1825) VOC -Netherlands ||Most of Java, Spice Islands, North Sulawesi, Bengkulu, South Sumatra (1825) Netherlands / Rest of Indonesia Except Papua Indonesia ||Annexation of Papua |
|Government ||Feudal to Centralized Despotism ||Looser Control until 1800. Greater Centralization From 1800-1825 ||Centralized Bureaucracy ||Centralized Bureaucracy |
|POPULATION AND ECONOMY || || || || |
|Population ||3.5 Million (3) ||1825 7-8 Million (3) ||1940 48 Million ||1971 75 Million (3) 2017 149 Million |
|Population Density ||Like Kalimantan Today 30 people / km2 ||1825 60 people / km2 ||1940 350 / km2 ||1971 545 / km2 2017 1090 / km2 |
|Urbanization Rate ||Overwhelming Rural ||Overwhelming Rural ||5% Urbanization in 1930 ||12% Urbanization in 1971, 40% in 2000, 62% in 2015 |
|Migration ||Under Sultan Agung to Sabang, Indramayu, Cirebon ||Negligible ||Starting from late 1850s migration to Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo ||Private migration to outer islands. Worker in Middle East, Malaysia-Singapore and East Asia |
|Economic System ||Subsistence Farming, Trading ||Subsistence Farming, Trading ||Plantation Economy, Industry, Trading ||Plantation Economy, Industry, Trading |
|LANGUAGE AND CULTURE || || || || |
|Literacy ||Estimate <1% ||Estimate <1% ||In 1920, 3% for Native Males 0.5% for Females (1) ||2018- 92% (2) |
|Languages ||Javanese, Javanese-Malay in Pesisir ||Javanese, Javanese-Malay in Pesisir ||Javanese-Malay and or Dutch ||Indonesian - Javanese |
|RELIGION || || || || |
|Islamicized ||Pesisir (North Coast) ||All except for remote mountain areas and Oosthoek ||All except for remote mountain region ||Formalization of Islamic practice |
|Islamization ||Interior Regions ||Oosthoek ||N?A ||Remote mountain areas |
|Weak Islamization ||Oosthoek and remote mountain areas ||Remote mountain areas ||Remote mountain areas ||N/A |
|Reformist islam ||N/A ||Urban Pesisir ||Pesisir, by mid 19th century move to inland towns ||All |
|Christianity ||N/A ||Urban Pesisir Protestant Only ||All of Java, Both Catholic and Protestant ||Surge in Conversions due to 1965 |
1For Java and Madura. For natives in the outer islands it was 12% and 3%.
In 1930, the literacy rate in Sumatra was 31%, and in Java and Madura 16.2% 2 East Java, Central Java, DIY had some of the lowest literacy rates in Indonesia, and it had to do with the low female literacy rates. The female literacy rate is 90% in 2018 vs 98% in Aceh, West Sumatra
. One reason for this is Tanah Java has a higher % of elderly than the rest of Indonesia due to stricter enforcement of family family planning under Suharto and migration. As of 2015 12% of the Javanese Home Provinces is 60 years or older compared to 7% in Sumatra
. An older population pulls down the literacy rate. 3
Includes West Java and Madura
TRENDS IN JAVANESE HISTORY 1613-1998
The first two sections, on Expansion and Centralization, and Rise and Fall of Plantation Economy are related in the sense they highlight the importance of elite or vested interest particularly during the earlier colonial period. The last two sections on Malayifcation and Islamization while treated separately, are closely intertwined, which I elaborate when it is relevant.
EXPANSION AND CENTRALIZATION
Whether the occupying entity was the Mataram Sultanate, VOC, the Dutch state or the Republic of Indonesia, from the reign of Sultan Agung to Reformasi 1998 was one of expansion and centralization. In 1613, the Mataram Sultanate occupied a territory that covered only Central Java, by the time Sultan Agung died in 1645, the Mataram Sultanate had controlled all of Java except for Banten, Batavia and part of the Oosthoek. However, the rapid expansion under Sultan Agung and the centralizing administrative reforms introduced by Sultan Agung laid the foundation for the subsequent rebellions and wars of successions that would plague his successors. It was the need for Dutch military assistance and loans to fight these rebellions that indebted the Mataram Sultanate to the VOC.
Ironically, the VOC's involvement in the affairs of the Mataram lead to the eventual bankruptcy of the VOC in 1800. Here is the a list of the wars fought between 1613-1755
- Conquest of Surabaya, Madura and parts of East Java 1613-25
- Siege of Batavia in 1626 and 1629
- Sumadang and Ukar Rebellion 1631-36 (West Java)
- Tembayat Rebellion 1633 (Central Java)
- Capture of Giri last Wali stronghold on Java 1635 (East Java)
- War against Hindu Balambangan 1635-40 (East Java)
- TrunaJaya Rebellion 1674-80
- FIrst Javanese War of Succession 1704-1708
- Second Javanese War of Succession 1719-1723
- Java War of 1741-1743
- Third Javanese War of Succession 1749-1755
Outside of the Third Javanese War of Succession, all wars were either wars of conquest or rebellion
There are two views on this period. The first view which is held by most non-Dutch historians was the subsequent rebellions after Sultan Agung was caused poor leadership and lack of islamic spirit by subsequent Mataram rulers. Most Dutch historians and more recent Indonesian historians believe destructive nature of the Sultan conquests and political and administrative structure Sultan Agung had setup in these conquered territories was the source of subsequent grievances.
I take the second view. First the Sultan Agung conquest was devastating for conquered territories, particularly pesisir trading communities and towns. The conquest of Surabaya was very nasty. It involved nine years of war. From 1615-25, five sieges were conducted against Surabaya, and during the last siege they spoiled the water supply and dammed the Brantas River. Secondly, more damaging to the Mataram Sultanate, was the system setup by Sultan Agung to manage conquered territories and rulers.
Prior to Sultan Agung, the Mataram Sultanate operated like Javanese kingdoms before it, when ti conquered lands, the defeated entity would usually become a vassal. However, Sultan Agung reduced the uses of the vassal system, and instead opted a centralized system, where he would appoint an official from the capital, the adipati, to rule the conquered territory, The conquered ruler and much of his family would be moved to the capital often as "hostages" as well as bring captive laborers and craftsmen to build the Mataram capital
, as Denys Lombard said the capital became a microcosm of the kingdom
Penguasa Mataram, dimulai Panembahan Hanyakrakusuma, lalu membangun satu sistem -yang disebut de Graaf- pemerintahan paralel: menempatkan seorang adipati sebagai administrator di wilayah taklukan saat penguasa de jure wilayah taklukan tinggal di ibukota Mataram. Keduanya harus tunduk pada perintah penguasa agung di Mataram.
Penempatan beberapa orang-orang taklukan berikut pemimpinnya di ibukota ini bertujuan jelas. Selain untuk memudahkan kontrol atas jajahan, penempatan orang taklukan itu juga untuk memudahkan tersedianya tenaga kerja untuk melakukan apa saja demi kepentingan penguasa.
Trunajaya's rebellion from 1674-80 is often portrayed as an Islamic rebellion against Amangkurat II
alliance with the infidels. the VOC. However, the main reason for the revolt had to do with reasons I described above. Trunajaya's father and grandfather were held in such circumstances
, and his father was murdered at Amangkurat I‘s court. However, based on written accounts, what Trunajaya want was not to overthrow Amangkurat II
, but wanted Amangkurat II
to recognize control over his ancestral lands in Madura. Ultimately,,Trunajaya's revolt failed, because the Javanese nobility were reluctant to a Maduraese.
When the Dutch took over from the Mataram Sultanate they continued with the system of adipati, renamed to bupati, and eventually extended it to the outer islands. When Indonesia became independent in 1949, they inherited this system from the Dutch. The centralized system developed under Order Baru was just the system under the Sultan Agung extended throughout the country. Governor and Bupati were often ex-military men, many of them Javanese. The multiethnic elite in Jakarta, in many ways is like the "captured" local elites held by Sultan Agung.
This is recurring theme in Javanese history from 1613-1825, the wars and strife between 1613-1755 was a result of the attempts by Mataram Sultanate to impose centralized control. The VOC restored this equilibrium between 1755-1799. From 1799-1825, the Dutch renewed Agung's attempts at centralization and undermining local elites in their attempts to modernize the system and do away with many of noble privileges. Unfortunately, this was a key factor in causing the Java War. Despite the cruelty of the Cultivation System, because the Dutch brought the local elites into the system
RISE AND FALL OF THE PLANTATION ECONOMY
Like with expansion and centralization of the government structure, the Javanese economy from 1613-1998, went through several stages where the mode of production goes from Feudal (1613-1808), Market experiment (1808-1830), the Semi-Feudal Cultivation System (1830-1873), Market Orientated Liberal and Ethical 1874-1930s
and more state intervention after 1949. This section will provide a general overview of the colonial period, while only going into analysis on how it has impacted Javanese identity afterwards. There has been a lot of research on economic history of colonial Java, but most of it is done by Western economic historians. The bulk of the information will come from Colonial state formation and patterns of economic development in Java, 1800-1913 Jan Luiten van Zanden, University of Utrecht, 2010
Prior to the establishment of the Cultivation System in 1830s
, the economic system on Java could be described as feudal.
- Agricultural and non-monetized. Majority of the population were peasants. Governed by an elite which draws surpluses mainly from the agricultural sector.
- Surplus is extracted using non-economic means, i.e. through labour services and claims to % of produce
- The claims to (the produce of) labour and land of the different layers of society are overlapping: often the sovereign claims to be the sole owner of the land, but peasants have strong user-rights
- Contracts are oral
The period between 1808-1825
that started with Daendels, continued with Raffles and Van der Capellen . These reformers were heavily influenced by the European Enlightenment. While there are differences in what they wanted was to create a system which was
- Formal bureaucracy to replace informal mercantile system of the VOC and hold of the feudal elites. Most successful of all the reforms.
- Replace forced deliveries and obligations with land rents to be paid in cash (Raffles)
- Tried to turn into a Market Economy. Linked price of Coffee to world market prices ( Van der Capellen)/ The hope was to break the control of village heads on negotiation of contracts, and have the peasnats themselves determine what was produced.
The policies failed because there was a lack of coin (money) circulating in the local economy), making it difficult for peasants to pay their taxes.. Secondly, these reforms upset the local elites, the village heads and nobility.
The impact of this period was largely political-economic, rather the economic There wasn't much change in GDP per capita or in the production of export crops from earlier period.
The after 1830 to 1965, can be divided into two periods, the Cultivation System which lasted from 1830-1873, and period from 1874-1965, which covers Liberal and Ethical period, and first 15 years of independence. The Cultivation System was a system to use the surplus labor of Javanese peasants to produce export crops through coercion. While the VOC had such a system for Coffee in Priangan region of West Java (all Sunda speaking areas of West Java), it was very limited, with total exports being about 7000 metric tonnes
. The reason for abandoning the early reforms from 1799-1825, was as Van den Bosch argued in a memo to King William I in 1829
Because of its distant location, the resulting high transportation costs and the relatively high costs of producing coffee and sugar in Java – the island could not compete with other (Caribbean) colonies on European markets. Moreover, Javanese peasants, because of the richness of their soils and the high yields of rice cultivation, could produce their own subsistence in only a fraction of their labour time; he in fact assumed that 120 days of labour were sufficient for the feeding of a family. The high productivity of rice cultivation also meant that the incentive to switch to coffee (or sugar) was absent
The motive of the Dutch state was to generate revenue to cover the increasing cost of colonial administration, cost of the Java War and Belgium War of Independence in 1830. At one point, transfer from Java covered 3.5% of Dutch GDP and 30% of the Netherlands government budget. It was successful in bringing the local elite (priyayi and village heads) into the system, and restoring the privileges of the priyayi like allowing sons to inherit post).
The consensus was the Cultivation system was a success from 1830-1840s, exports of cash crops like Tobacco, Sugar and Coffee grew by several fold. One reason for its initial success was the introduction of cheap copper coins into the economy. Per capita GDP was stable until the mid 1840s, than you see a drop in per capita consumption. In 1845/46 and 1849/50 there were two famines on Java. You don't see a recovery in per capita consumption until the 1880s.
By 1850, the colonial administration started to introduce market mechanism within the cultivation system, corvee labor was gradually replaced with free wage labor. While the Max Havellar
did have an impact in changing colonial policy, the policy had started to change before the book was released in 1860. More favorable conditions begin to emerge in the 1860s that allowed market economy to take root that weren't present in 1820s -- more professional bureaucracy, better infrastructure, European entrepreneurs with capital and larger labor pool due to increased population. The subsequent period between 1874-1965 which covers both the Liberal and Ethical periods, at the beginning wasn't a complete break from the cultivation system.
Coercion was still use, but was gradually phased out as wage labor became more important. In this period you see the gradual development of large plantations. This was most notable in the sugar industry. By 1920s, some of the sugar plantations on Java were very large. Java and Cuba supplied about 50% of the exported sugar in the world. Because of limited land and large pool of labor, Java's sugar industry was was focused on maximizing yield through using latest scientific methods, research and increase mechanization.
During this period you start to see a shift in dominance of Java to the outer islands in the export of cash crops like rubber, coffee and tea. Value of Java's coffee exports fell by 70% from 1880 to 1830. By 1930 the outer islands coffee export was twice those of Java. The same with rubber.
The only export crop java was dominate in was sugar, most likely because the investment in sugar mills and factories and nature of sugar plantations in the Dutch East Indies which was
By the mid 19th century, Javanese begun to migrate to the outer islands and Malaya. In 1947, in Malaya out of a population 5 Million, there were 190,000 Javanese out of population of 300,000 individuals from the Dutch East Indies. Most of the Javanese came as contract labor or small land holders. Many of the Javanese travelled to Singapore and Malaya to evade Dutch quotas on who could travel to the Haj, every year.
Between the mid-19th and early 20th centuries, around 2,000 to 7,000 Javanese made the pilgrimage to Mecca annually via Singapore, The Javanese pilgrims would often work in Singapore and Malaya for months, or even years, to earn sufficient funds for their pilgrimage. On the return journey, some Javanese pilgrims would settle in Singapore or work on the island for a few years to settle their debts.
Within the Dutch East Indies itself, the first Javanese contract laborers arrived in East Sumatra (Deli) in 1880, after the Chinese and the British colonial government made it more difficult for Chinese and Tamils to work in the Dutch East Indies.
Oleh karena itu, tahun 1880 awal kedatangan buruh Jawa ke Deli, yaitu masukya 150 orang...Pada tahun 1905, diantara 33.961 orang kuli kontrak Jawa terdapat 6.290 orang perempuan...Pada tahun 1926, kuli kontrak laki-laki Jawa berjumlah 142.000 orang, sedangkan buruh wanita Jawa 52.400 orang. Namun, catatan Belanda lainnya menunjukkan tahun 1920 saja, jumlah orang Jawa di Sumatera Timur ada 353.551 orang, melebihi jumlah orang Melayu yang tercatat 285.553 orang.
The first transmigration settlement in Indonesia since Sultan's Agung settlement of West Java was setup in Desa Bagelen in Lamping in 1905
. By 1940, the colonial government had sent 65,000 transmigrants from Java. From 1949-1965, Sukarno sent another 85,000 transmigrants.
The period from 1949-1965 was really a transition period for the economy on Java, it was still a plantation economy, even when Dutch and later on Chinese plantations were seized between 1957-59
. The move away from a plantation economy starts in 1970s with Order Baru.
There are two components to this shift, the first is the massive transmigration programs launched by the Suharto government which shipped between 4.5-5 Million people from 1966-1996 from East Java, Central Java and Bali to the outer islands. This provided the outer islands what they lacked which was manpower. What this did was develop the bulk of the plantation economy in the outer islands. Java still grew cash crops like coffee, sugar and tea, but production levels grew slowly.
Starting from the early 1970s, the yields on sugarcane dropped from 9 Metric Tonnes a Hectare to 5.74 Metric Tonnes a Hectare in 2010
. In 1940 it was 17 Tonnes a hectare. The reason for this drop was prior to the 1975, farmers used irrigated sawah land to grow sugarcane, after that they increasingly used marginal non-irrigated land, as the government focused on rice self-sufficiency. Sugar cane was grown to supplement income, not as the main crop. Secondly the big drop from yields in 1940, was during the colonial period, there were large vertical sugar estates which controlled everything from growing, harvesting, milling and refining.
As it moved away from a plantation economy, there wasn't enough work to absorb the number of new workers entering the labor force.As a result, from 1980-90, the Suharto government signed formal agreements between countries outside Malaysia and Singapore, to hire Indonesian workers - Arab countries, Hong Kong and Taiwan
With the opening up of the Indonesia economy in 1986, Indonesia began to attract a lot of overseas investment to develop light manufacturing in Indonesia, particular in West Java and Batam, and to a lesser extent East Java.
Prior to the Dutch setting up the Cultivation System, most Javanese outside select trading and religious communities in Pesisir had little exposure to Malay. In the 17th century during Trunajaya Rebellion, the Dutch were still using Dutch-Javanese interpreters when communicating with the Mataram nobility
, At least among the Mataram nobility and courtier, knowledge of Malay wasn't common. This also applied to the vast majority of Sundanese and Balinese as well. However, in Pesisir trading communities Malay was more widely used. However, by the mid 18th century this had changed. The Dutch and Javanese priyayi communicated with each other in Malay, By the 19th century, the Dutch government took greater control over the lives of ordinary Javanese and Sundanese. First there was a greater presence of Malay speakers in the interior, both Dutch, Chinese and native from other island spoke Malay. KNIL Christian soldiers from Eastern Indonesia communicated primarily in Malay, the language of communication for lower ranks of the KNIL. A creolized Malay had replaced the native tongues of the vast majority of Christian Ambonese by the 19th century
. Like the VOC staff before them, most Dutch civil servants during the start of the cultivation system communicated with natives using Malay. It was only by mid-19th century were they formally trained in the languages of the people they were supposed to administer.
The education policy of the colonial government flucated, during the earlier period between 1850s, they started to setup state schools that taught in both the local languages and Malay. Of course during this time this policy only applied to the Sundanese and Javanese, and did not apply to schools in the Spice Island or Manado where they would used Malay. On java, as students progressed through the system, more Malay was used, as it was considered the lingua franca
and "modern". This didn't include the pesantren and mission schools. In the pesantren,, they would be using Arabic and Javanese kawi/pegon for commentary. Prior to the 19th century, even Pesantren in Madura nad Sunda would be using Javanese.
In the Catholic mission schools setup in 1890s in Central Java, the main language of instruction was Dutch, but Javanese and Malay were also taught
While the majority of Javanese didn't start to learn Malay/Indonesian until after independence, by the period between 1900-1942,
Malay was the language of youth and modernity, of newness and experiment, and the forms of Malay that were used on Java in writing and printing were leaning on the Malay that was spoken in the urban centres of Batavia, Semarang, Solo, [and] Soerabaja rather than on the written forms that were preserved in manuscripts in the Malay heartland
Malay united the various racial groups that lived in the cities - natives, Chinese, Arabs, Eurasians and Europeans. That being said, different races would add their own words and lexicon in their use of Malay. Peranakan newspapers Sin Po
(1910–1965) and Keng Po
(1923–1961) would have have Hokkien loan words.
By the late 19th century, besides the Malay and Dutch newspapers,there were also Javanese publications
. By the 1920s, there were Sundanese
newspapers, Batak newspapers
etc. Many of them continued to exist after independence, but most died off in the late 1960s and 1970s. At the same time the Javanese nobility and middle classes (both pribumi and Chinese) preferred that their children be educated in Dutch, because a Dutch education was considered superior to a Malay education.
This bias lasted until the 1957, when the Dutch medium schools were closed. I knew a person who was born in 1950, and who's father was a KNIL-TNI officer, and he went to a Dutch language kindergarten. It wasn't just a matter of Dutch being a Western language, many Javanese considered Malay to be inferior and less expressive. One of Budi Utomo's goals in 1910s was to increase availability of Dutch educated to natives. This was part of the impetus behind the Teman Siswa and Kartini Schools, which taught Javanese and Dutch.
Malayification intensified under the Japanese when they banned Dutch and some regional language publications. When the Dutch came back in 1945, Dutch schools reopened. However, Malayification continued and accelerated after independence with the expansion of public mass education with Bahasa Indonesia as the national language.
| || |https://preview.redd.it/5h1ovacjevd41.jpg?width=700&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f3ad418fcae1c39c65e08d0ac441f33e321d7e83 Latest Report on the 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor Market submitted by olive_allen to TechInsightreports [link] [comments]
The Global 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor Market
report estimates statistical market facts and figures to understand and determine the factors that would boost the growth of the global 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor market. The report incorporates key industry findings such as CAGR, market shares, sales, gross margin, value, volumes and other statistical data that are expected to drive the growth of the keyword market.
Our assessment is expected to assist you in undertaking important organizational decisions related to procurement, inventory, pricing, and production in the global 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor market.
The report outlines the primary objective of assisting the user in understanding the market in terms of its segmentation, definition, market potential, influential trends, and the challenges that the market is expected to face in the near future. Profound analysis and insightful researches were undertaken during the assimilation of this report. The readers will find this report very helpful in understanding the workings of the market in the present day scenario. The data and facts are authentically represented in the report, in the form of graphs, diagrams, pie charts, and other pictorial representations, thereby enlarging the scope of visual representation. The report profiles major global 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor Market players offering insights on data such as company profiles, product picture, and capacity, production, specification, price, cost, contact information, and revenue. Request for Sample Report @ https://www.acquiremarketresearch.com/sample-request/266357/ List of Key players operating in the Global 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor Market are :
, ASUSTeK Computer , Cognex Corporation , LMI Technologies , Melexis , Microchip Technology , Microsoft Corporation , Infineon Technologies AG , Intel Corporation , IFM Electronic GmbH , Occipital , OmniVision Technologies , PMD Technologies AG , Qualcomm Technologies , STMicroelectronics , Texas Instruments , SoftKinetic , TriDiCam
The report abstract details an exhaustive overview of Key market players, encompassing data evaluation of distribution channels and products and services offered by, and financial performance of companies operating in the global 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor market.
The report further includes important market research practises such as Porter’s Five Forces, PESTLE, and SWOT analysis to mitigate competitive threats and examine other aspects of the global 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor market. The report summarises strategic recommendations, competitor benchmarking for performance measurement, analysis of partnership, merger, and acquisition targets and industry best practices. It also collates an in-depth analysis of profitability and cost across the industry value chain.
This report forecasts revenue growth at a global, regional & country level, and provides an analysis of the market trends in each of the sub-segments from 2020 to 2024. North America
(U.S.A, Canada, Mexico, etc.) Asia-Pacific
(China, Japan, India, Korea, Australia, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, etc.) Europe
(Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia, Spain, etc.) Middle East & Africa
(Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Egypt, Nigeria, UAE, Israel, South Africa, etc.) South America
(Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, etc.) By the product type, the market is primarily split into:
, 3D Position Sensor , 3D Acoustic Sensor , By the end users/application, this report covers the following segments:
, Consumer Electronics , Robotics and Drone , Machine Vision and Industrial Automation , Entertainment , Security and Surveillance , Browse full report @ https://www.acquiremarketresearch.com/industry-reports/3d-position-and-acoustic-sensor-market/266357/ Points Covered in The Report:
1) The keyword industry provides an overview of the market synopsis, manufacturer and distributors approach, and research findings. 2) Enlisting the leading market players for both regional and country-level coupled with detailed information concerning Business Data (Capacity, Sales Revenue, Volume, Price, Cost and Margin), and market trade and accumulation as per the region. 3) It inculcates business intelligence on Global and Regional market size and forecast, production data and export & import data analysis. 4) To evaluate and forecast the 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor market on the basis of segments. 5) To observe and examine 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor market dynamics affecting and driving the market during the projection period Some key points of 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor Market research report: Business description –
A detailed Overview of the 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor Industry. Telescopic Outlook –
The Global 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor Market 2020 report offers product overview, 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor share, supply chain analysis, demand and supply ratio and import/export details. Market Dynamics –
Readers are furnished with a comprehensive analysis of market challenges, influence factors, drivers, opportunities, and trends. Key Competitors –
3D Position and Acoustic Sensor Market-Leading players are studied with regards to their company profile, product portfolio, capacity, price, cost and revenue. Major Products –
3D Position and Acoustic Sensor brands, services, and products of the company. Readability – The keyword
market report includes an infographical representation of data in the form of tables, graphs, and pie-charts that makes the report highly readable and easy to understand. Expert Analysis –
Sales revenue, Future Strategies, Innovation and Technological trends, factors impacting development, SWOT.
The 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed and definite research conclusions are deduced. Request customized copy of 3D Position and Acoustic Sensor report
You can get a comprehensive summary of the entire research here. If you have any unique requirement, please let us know and we will customize the report as you want. Contact Us @
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