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Market Live: Sensex, Nifty trade marginally higher ahead of inflation data, OMC stocks rise

Market Live: Sensex, Nifty trade marginally higher ahead of inflation data, OMC stocks rise submitted by newsbot_ to InNews [link] [comments]

Market LIVE: Sensex, Nifty trade marginally higher, HDFC Bank shares up 2%

Market LIVE: Sensex, Nifty trade marginally higher, HDFC Bank shares up 2% submitted by newsbot_ to InNews [link] [comments]

Sensex: Sensex, Nifty end marginally higher in lackluster trade

Sensex: Sensex, Nifty end marginally higher in lackluster trade submitted by dim244 to u/dim244 [link] [comments]

Sensex: Sensex, Nifty end marginally higher in lackluster trade

Sensex: Sensex, Nifty end marginally higher in lackluster trade submitted by dim244 to forexnewstnow [link] [comments]

SEBI bans intraday leverage from August 2021

All brokers have to ban intraday leverage by Augusta 2021
What are your views on it? Most people think it’s a regressive move, especially since it will reduce liquidity in stocks. Moreover in developed markets there are numerous additional margins that brokers offer which are not in place in India due to harsh laws. Changing margin requirements is not a market friendly move.
submitted by Money-Meat4980 to IndiaInvestments [link] [comments]

Daily Discussion Thread - June 01, 2020

Please use this thread to discuss whatever you have been thinking of buying or trading. Also use this thread to discuss any query related to Stock Market & Trading. Join the discord if you haven't already! Here you can talk to mods and fellow autists about the market. If you have no idea how to become an autist, then visit our wiki. Also, dont forget to follow us on Twitter @ISB_Reddit.
submitted by AutoModerator to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

Arbitrage opportunities in options - how options are priced, explained in layman's terms - without resorting to the BS pricing model

Arbitrage opportunities in options - how options are priced, explained in layman's terms - without resorting to the BS pricing model
Alright retards, I've been laid off at work due to beervirus and I've been eyeing and toying with the idea to get back into options trading. I'm writing this post to raise the bar for discussion on this sub, I'm tired of seeing just memes. We'll never match WSB unless there is a healthy mix of dankass memes and geniass discussions.
Now, when it comes to options, I am completely self-taught (completely from first principles, back in 2008, before you autists came up with the idea of watching videos on youtube). Since I am completely self-taught, my perspective will be different from the people who learnt this stuff while studying MBA/finance courses/NSE accredited investing courses. So if what I'm saying is different from what you've heard from the dude who swindled you of 20K for two days of options education or your gay BF's live-in partner, remember when it comes to maths, there are many ways of approaching a problem, ultimately, all are the same - profit means account balance goes up, loss means a loss post on ISB goes up.
Now, I'm assuming that you understand how options work. If not, I suggest heading to Zerodha's Varsity to read up on options. If you're too lazy for this, get your micro-dick outta options, this is a man's game, surprise butt-sex awaits amateurs.
I'm also assuming that you've come to realise that the sustainable way to make money in options is to write options. Unless you've got Trump or Ambani on speed dial to get access to news before it becomes news, YOLOing whatever rent money you have on buying options will blow up your account, eventually.
Writing options also means the possibility of account balance going tits up is a real possibility. You gotta, gotta, gotta measure and manage your risk. You can do this only when you understand options as well as your dick.
Towards this, I intend to put up a bunch of posts (depending on many of you shit heads are still reading at this point) that comment about little things that are more of 'wisdom' than 'education'.
The example below talks about currency derivatives. Why currency? Read below:
  • Lower margin needed. I can short a CE/PE contract with only Rs.2000, unlike the >Rs. 70,000 for index contracts. You get to learn, play and wisen up with an order of magnitude less money than with Nifty or Banknifty contracts.
  • More stable underlying. When you're shorting contracts, the last thing you want is the underlying asset going crazy like a broncho during rodeo.
  • Less autistic crowd in the currency market. While banknifty options attract retards like flies to poop, currency derivatives attract a more educated crowd.
  • Sooner or later, you end up acquiring a more balanced education on economics as a whole, rather than the shit fest that goes on in the local circles.
  • The more contracts you can short, the more strategies you can pursue
  • Decent hedging is possible without throwing away all of your potential profits
  • Lesser stress (anybody else going through premature hairloss or is it just me?) because of points outlined above.
Alright, today, I'm going point how the put-call parity works and by extension, show proof for 'efficient markets' by pointing out how opportunities for arbitrage is pretty much non existent, so you guys can cool it with the whole 'market manipulators' knee jerk reaction.
Alright, to start off, here's the current spot rate of the USD-INR pair:
https://preview.redd.it/qup28ay567j51.jpg?width=452&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b79ef1a3480e5cbafa42547143c651397ec57f13
Here's today's USD-INR futures closing rate for Sep expiry:
https://preview.redd.it/krghirc677j51.jpg?width=511&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=60d52b785baa8a1cd240d0df7949a48c8391ba2d
The difference between spot and futures rates is due to differences in what is construed as 'risk-free' interest rates in the US and in India. Check out this video if you want to understand why the Sep futures is trading at a premium of 27 paisa to the spot rate.
Alright, so the deal is, if you buy 1 futures contract @ 74.49, unless the USDINR exchange rate rises by 27 paisa at the end of Sep (i.e. a spot rate of 74.49) you won't make a profit (ignoring brokerage and stuff). If the exchange rate were to remain the same without any change, you stand to lose (0.27 * 1000, currency derivatives have a lot size of 1000) Rs. 270 per lot. Even worse if the rupee were to appreciate (i.e. exchange spot rate goes down).
Now bear with me if the next few paras are exceedingly boorish, I need to spoon feed people who aren't used to currency derivatives. My strategies are mostly aimed at playing a more risk balanced play, something that yields consistent returns which can be compounded. 10% profit compounded monthly gives 314% growth per year, 3.5% profit compounded weekly gives ~600% growth per year.
Given how the USDINR rate is crashing, one way to profit would be to short a futures contract (duh!).
The orange line indicates the current USDINR exchange rate
As indicated above, if the exchange rate does nothing and remains as is till end of Sep, each lot of USDINR futures shorted yields about Rs. 250 in profit (for something that takes up Rs.3000 in margin, that's a >8% profit in return). Things look even better if the exchange rate were to fall further.
The problem is that things heat up quickly if the exchange rate were to go up. Ideally we would want to hedge against it (which also reduces the margin needed drastically). One way to hedge it would be to buy a at-the-money call (74.25CE @ rate of Rs. 0.555 -> Rs. 555 per lot (i.e 0.555*1000)).
https://preview.redd.it/ze16kyphv7j51.jpg?width=588&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a3c2bba9fb314beff309671f03a013e69e08f4e0
Having purchased a call option, the P/L curve now looks like:
The max loss is now limited to Rs. 315
The keen-eyed among you will recognise the above P/L curve as one that matches that of a put option. By shorting a futures contract and buying a call option (both with same expiry), we have created a synthetic put option that would have costed us Rs. 315 (0.315*1000) for one lot.
Now, why go through all of this hassle if we can get the same returns by just buying a put option? Makes sense, as long as we can purchase the 74.25 strike put option at a price lesser than Rs. 0.315 (see above).
Let's see what the put options are going for:
Well, how about that...
The market price of 74.25 puts are exactly the same price as our synthetic put. While the synthetic put came in at Rs. 0.315, the put costs another 0.005 extra to avoid the trouble of shorting a futures contract and buying a call at the same time. This is not by chance, big trading desks have algos (trading bots for the virgins here) that keep an eye out for price disparities. In this case, if someone were to be willing to pay more, the algos would compete amongst themselves to sell the puts at any price above 0.32. And if someone were to be willing to sell a put for less than 0.315, the algos would immediately buy.
The price of the puts move in sync with the prices of the futures and call contracts. Conversely, we can create a synthetic call, and you will notice that the price of the synthetic call works out to be the same as the market price for the 74.25 strike call. We can also create a synthetic futures contract the same way.
The prices of derivatives aren't decided willy-nilly. They are precisely calculated at all times, which forms the basis for the best bid/ask prices. There is no room left for someone to come in and make free money via arbitraging using synthetic contracts.
If you found this insightful, and would like more of this sort of posts, let me know.
Options when used properly, can be used to generate risk adjusted returns that are commensurate with the amount of risk you are taking. If you are YOLO-ing, sure, you can double or triple your money, because you can also lose 100% of your margin. Conversely, you can aim for small, steady returns and compound the crap out of them. Play the long game, don't be penny wise and pound foolish.
submitted by circuit_brain to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

CapitalMind Chase : Trend based market timing strategy on Nifty futures involving leverage.

I stumbled upon this article on CapitalMind blog which lead to this whole research of trying to reverse engineering the strategy :
Blog : https://www.capitalmind.in/2020/07/introducing-capitalmind-chase-a-systematic-index-trend-following-strategy/
So.. Capitalmind has apparently come up with this strategy on NIFTY futures trading which essentially tries to time the market based on certain set of rules to avoid drawdowns. They've made only the results public, so the methodology is behind paywall and hence not something I can access, but here's some of the basics that I understood out of it :
This way, they can essentially get 2x returns out of the bullish cycles and get 1x (or none) of the drawdown from the bearish cycles or dips.
What I believe they're doing :
They backtested this strategy from 2008 onwards (to factor for GFC) and claim that Capitalmind Chase has delivered an annualized return of 37.41 %, while a buy and hold on NIFTY delivered close to 8.20% since 2008.
Here's an introduction article which has infographics for the same : https://www.capitalmind.in/2020/07/introducing-capitalmind-chase-a-systematic-index-trend-following-strategy/
Another article that goes into more detail : https://www.capitalmind.in/2020/08/capitalmind-chase-roaring-day-and-night/
They also made a podcast for this, but I followed only half before I dozed off : https://www.capitalmind.in/2020/08/podcast-31-how-trend-following-can-make-buy-and-hold-bette
It does look interesting, but the only tricky part is they aren't making the details public (which is understandable since it's premium) which leads to uncertainty. Also apparently they're going to give calls on when to buy/sell to their premium members which I'm not sure how I feel about.
But since we have the excel data, it's possible to make some sense out of it and figure out what indicators they're using. It's interesting strategy either way.
I'm not very sure on where to go with this, so I'm making an initial version of this post and will update it as I do more research on it, but it does look something promising.
Note : This post does not promote leaking their methodology in any way. The aim of this post is merely to try and reverse engineer it instead. Since the primary part of this, i.e indicators and weightages are the most important factor, we are merely trying to figure out what's the correct way to try and mimic something similar.
submitted by IrtahkEnt to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

Someone please help me get out of this mess.

Someone please help me get out of this mess. submitted by throwawaygeyrodha to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

Done for the day with good tendies 💪🏻

Done for the day with good tendies 💪🏻 submitted by siddharth_betala to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

Conspiracy: SEBI is taking away your margin because they know retail bears want to short the market and create an artificial crash. Deep down everyone is waiting for world to end.

Discount brokers have created large trader and investor base in last few years. These chillar investors and autist traders might not have large volume but they have unlimited leverage from retard brokers.
And guess who trades 1L worth of Position in 5k, PR Sundar possesed souls who do Trading as side gig and call themselve Intelligent Investor because they read the wiki over the IndiaInvestments .
SEBI knows these retards can't touch the big boys but if they become autistic at same time they will crush the established system, because guess who keep on selling when they see big red didlos and eating profit in muffins and shitting losses as cakes those days are gone. No one wants to hurt big boys, but retailers are becoming smart. They know how motabhai farts and Nifty start running like Usain Bolt.They also know how to piggy back Big Boys.
So what's the solution, it is simple... just take thier fucking money. Retailers are already poor (they must have taken our Rs.130 trading account guy as key consideration) and all the autistic trades they do are funded by there Orphan broker, let's fuck both of them by taking away the margin and let them wait for their funds forever.
TLDR; SEBI knows Ratail Investor is the baboon with fire power.
submitted by zedex786 to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

Should i buy nifty put 7300 april now?

I was seeing the price is very low for nifty put 7300 april . So,i am thinking to buy, will it increase as nifty goes down or not. Can anyone explain.
submitted by vikashred to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

Liquidated 2 equity holdings in loss. Went all in for options. Puts obviously. First timer. Played small, only intraday. Thanks to all fellow retards here, made some. Now i want to enter the big boy or the super gay league. Suggest cheap puts and help me make those big tendies.

Liquidated 2 equity holdings in loss. Went all in for options. Puts obviously. First timer. Played small, only intraday. Thanks to all fellow retards here, made some. Now i want to enter the big boy or the super gay league. Suggest cheap puts and help me make those big tendies. submitted by dudefromblr to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

Jeremy Lefebvre Financial Education $7,500 investing course scam

Wanted to make this post for everyone considering Jeremy Lefebvre’s Financial program (Financial Fortress or whatever he is calling it now), having been lured in from his sales ability on youtube. Being in the financial industry (an actual professional) he is basically STEALING from you. A lot of my colleagues would say he is legit stealing from you. He should be paying you to listen to his analysis of companies. It may be entertaining, but it isn’t going to make you any money over a long period of time. Please see the post below. Trust me, when it comes to investments, you don't need any of these courses. I am trying to look out for you guys here. I am a professional in the finance industry so I know what high performers do to get results. They don’t listen to these gurus. The read about investments and they read 10Ks and talk with companies, etc. They aren’t in any stock groups because they don’t trust the information and good investment ideas aren’t thought up by average people. Good investment ideas come from understanding, and understanding comes from smart and thorough analysis ON YOUR OWN. Please just go read about investments from REAL investment professionals that have the best track records, there are many of them, and many have published books about their philosophy/approach. This guy has no track record and is trying to sell you something that costs $7,500 - sound stupid? Yes it is. By the way, the NET PROFIT (not gross) margin on that course is probably 98%. I doubt he has more than $500 in fees. He easily makes any fees back on his youtube channel from ad revenue… This is a wonderful business! You can see how these massive incentives can cause people to get involved in this trickery. YOU’VE BEEN SCAMMED. Just wait until your portfolio goes down and you sell out of fear.
I posted this comment below on his youtube channel but he probably deleted. Please go spend 100 dollars on books or go to the library. You are only filling his pockets so he can pay for more advertisements to sell more courses. See below.
lol this guy gets rich off of mostly stupid poor people who can't read books about investing and are easily sold by snake oil salesman. Then, said salesman, who sells a yearly program for $7,500 says he is going to give his “billions” (pulls this number from his grandiose, narcissistic, sociopath psyche) away... hahaha all of your money has come from peddling courses to poor people dude. Peddling dreams of getting rich by buying a few stocks these kids know nothing about. At least be honest and say where you got your money from - “I got my money in a very profitable business... Selling pure profit margin courses." Your portfolio is terrible by the way. You've lost a ton of money on a bunch of these trades and you can’t judge people on short term results in the stock market - ever heard of 2008 - 2009, or the internet bubble, or the nifty fifty? Why don't you talk about those?? You've never ever experienced a down/bear market in your investing life hahah. You pick all the high flyers. Just wait. I guarantee you don’t beat the S&P INDEX over a 15 yr period. The stock market has increased by 4x since when you started buying stocks in the financial recession of 2008 / 09. It is easy to make money when the stock market is going up 4x since you started. All of these kids you are fooling would be much better off going and reading books about investing rather than listening to you. You are a great marketer though. Give you that. But most of these kids you are selling can't even read and just want to be rich tomorrow = bad behavior. You know what they say, most of the people who got rich during the gold rush were selling shovels. That's Jeremy Lefebvre. Also, why are you talking about billions? Your ENTIRE net worth has 95% been created by peddling courses and it isn't even 10 million... Your stock account has a million in it… SO WHAT - I worked at a firm that ran 3 billion and they still do. Beware guys.. idk why you would want to be in a group with a bunch of average stock pickers - you don't get rich listening to what other people tell you based on trust (how do you know that they are correct, or are just trying to sell you something, or their cognitive biases aren’t in the way of their judgement - YOU DON’T) - that isn't how Buffett made his money. You also don't get rich buying Tesla stock. How did GO PRO work out for you Jeremy? This is what happens. We no longer hear about GO PRO anymore. The guy picks the stocks that are moving up and acts like he’s a genius. Make 10 million first before you talk about giving away billions out of the goodness out of your heart. You haven't produced an ounce of good for this world so please stop the salesmanship/woke/Elon Musk save the world crap. Like I said, if you are considering buying his $7,500 course, please just go spend $100 on books. You will have to unlearn what Jeremy will teach you. And it will be damaging.
can you imagine if Warren Buffett tried to charge $7,500 to get into his shareholder meetings every year.... or read his annual letter to shareholders?
instead of making money on his trades, Jeremy Lefebvre makes his money on YOU! Not from picking the latest high flyer speculation stock like Tesla and Go Pro.
submitted by conrad-jacobson to ValueInvesting [link] [comments]

What is Clearing Corporation of India and why my MF has it?

I was going through the folios of Axis Bluechip and Axis Midcap and noticed that both hold 20% and 15% of Clearing Corporation of India (CCI) respectively. I tried searching for CCI stock / share price but didn't find anything. I hold units in both these mutual fund and also continue to invest in them through SIP so was wondering why do I have 35% CCI. Also, noticed that both these mutual funds have taken the least beating in their respective space in the recent downturn. In fact, Axis Bluechip has been doing exceedingly well against UTI Nifty Index Fund. What's the catch here?
submitted by zzzehar to IndiaInvestments [link] [comments]

New Retard Here. Is this a good idea?

New Retard Here. Is this a good idea? submitted by AsliBakchod to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

How Different Nifty Strategies Traders Implementing Outlook of the Market?

How Different Nifty Strategies Traders Implementing Outlook of the Market?
People are always looking to earn money by exploring different avenues of investment. Investing in the stock market has become such a venue where people are learning about the different companies listed in the stock market. They study the company by learning about the work the company is doing and going through the fiscal data available in the public domain.
After thorough research, people decide whether to buy the share of the company or not. Many agencies help people make the decision and do all the research if the individual doesn't have time for it.

Nifty future strategies
Countless strategies are implemented by people and agencies who have been working in the stock market for a long time. One of these strategies is Nifty Futures Strategies as the name suggests the trading is done in nifty futures. It is essentially a contract on nifty futures, and the minimum lot size to trade is seventy-five units of nifty. But traders need to be very careful when trading in nifty futures and must consider few points like whether trading in an intraday or long term.
In futures, the trade is spread over a spot price, which needs to be checked by the trader before trading. Usually, the monthly spread is determined by the prevailing cost funds. Traders should avoid buying nifty futures when the prices steep premium or at a discounted price compared to the spot prices. This might be due to over positive news in the market or aggressive selling in the future.
The position in nifty future trading is that of a leveraged position. When a trader buys a Nifty in a near month, the trader's margin is around 10% for normal trade and 5% for intraday trade. It means the trader in leverage is ten times in normal trade and twenty times in intraday trade.
Leverages don't mean only your profit will get multiplied; rather even losses can be multiplied. Hence the trading in the futures should be done by enabling the stop losses & profit target. The trader should be aware of the overnight risk in the nifty future.
Even though the stop losses are put by the trader during the day, these orders don't cover the overnight risk. In nifty futures, traders don't earn dividends.
In the stock market, "Option" is a financial derivative that gives the trader the right to either hold or sell or buy an underlying asset at a pre-specified date and at a pre-specified price.
Nifty option strategies
In Nifty option strategies, there are two types of options known as the call option and put option.
● In case of the call option, buyers have the right but no obligation to buy an underlying asset like a stock, commodity, currency, etc. at a pre-specific price and pre-specific date.
● In put option, the buyer has the right but not obligation to sell an underlying asset like a stock, commodity, currency, etc. at a pre-specific price and pre-specific date.
The duration of the trade can last months. The options can also be classified into three categories based on the spot price with the strike price during the expiry date; it is known as the moneyness option. In option spread strategies is one of the simplest strategies a trader can implement. This is a multi-leg strategy which involves two or more options that has two or more option transactions.
In spread strategy, there is a bull call spread that is best implemented when the trader's outlook for a particular stock and index is not aggressive or moderate. Similarly, a bull put spread, which is also a two-leg strategy, is invoked when the view of the market is moderately bullish.
submitted by vtrender102 to u/vtrender102 [link] [comments]

How do NIFTY options work?

I understand how options with in general but all I've seen are definitions and American examples of trades.
Say I sell a PUT at 11900 expiring at January 9th. The index is currently at ,say, 12000. Come Jan 9th, and if the index goes below 11900( say 11800). I am now forced to buy nifty at 11900. But I don't have enough money to buy a 'lot' of nifty at 11900. A nifty lot is 75 so am I expected to buy 11900*75 worth of shares? Also, NIFTY is not a thing. It's an index. What exactly am I buying then.
Does my account directly get credited the shares? How does all this work?
submitted by megalomaniacniceguy to IndiaInvestments [link] [comments]

How Different Nifty Strategies Traders Implementing Outlook of the Market?

How Different Nifty Strategies Traders Implementing Outlook of the Market?
People are always looking to earn money by exploring different avenues of investment. Investing in the stock market has become such a venue where people are learning about the different companies listed in the stock market. They study the company by learning about the work the company is doing and going through the fiscal data available in the public domain.
After thorough research, people decide whether to buy the share of the company or not. Many agencies help people make the decision and do all the research if the individual doesn't have time for it.

https://preview.redd.it/8uxgtbydkif51.png?width=1918&format=png&auto=webp&s=c6301a6a6068b6c70de27d745848ac511feab0a6
Countless strategies are implemented by people and agencies who have been working in the stock market for a long time. One of these strategies is Nifty Futures Strategies as the name suggests the trading is done in nifty futures. It is essentially a contract on nifty futures, and the minimum lot size to trade is seventy-five units of nifty. But traders need to be very careful when trading in nifty futures and must consider few points like whether trading in an intraday or long term.
In futures, the trade is spread over a spot price, which needs to be checked by the trader before trading. Usually, the monthly spread is determined by the prevailing cost funds. Traders should avoid buying nifty futures when the prices steep premium or at a discounted price compared to the spot prices. This might be due to over positive news in the market or aggressive selling in the future.
The position in nifty future trading is that of a leveraged position. When a trader buys a Nifty in a near month, the trader's margin is around 10% for normal trade and 5% for intraday trade. It means the trader in leverage is ten times in normal trade and twenty times in intraday trade.
Leverages don't mean only your profit will get multiplied; rather even losses can be multiplied. Hence the trading in the futures should be done by enabling the stop losses & profit target. The trader should be aware of the overnight risk in the nifty future.
Even though the stop losses are put by the trader during the day, these orders don't cover the overnight risk. In nifty futures, traders don't earn dividends.
In the stock market, "Option" is a financial derivative that gives the trader the right to either hold or sell or buy an underlying asset at a pre-specified date and at a pre-specified price.

https://preview.redd.it/wyeifzxekif51.png?width=1274&format=png&auto=webp&s=b21fa82ca842d4f42a851095833d55cba6ba458b
In Nifty option strategies, there are two types of options known as the call option and put option.
● In case of the call option, buyers have the right but no obligation to buy an underlying asset like a stock, commodity, currency, etc. at a pre-specific price and pre-specific date.
● In put option, the buyer has the right but not obligation to sell an underlying asset like a stock, commodity, currency, etc. at a pre-specific price and pre-specific date.
The duration of the trade can last months. The options can also be classified into three categories based on the spot price with the strike price during the expiry date; it is known as the moneyness option. In option spread strategies is one of the simplest strategies a trader can implement. This is a multi-leg strategy which involves two or more options that has two or more option transactions.
In spread strategy, there is a bull call spread that is best implemented when the trader's outlook for a particular stock and index is not aggressive or moderate. Similarly, a bull put spread, which is also a two-leg strategy, is invoked when the view of the market is moderately bullish.
submitted by vtrender102 to u/vtrender102 [link] [comments]

I see a lot of questions about macro, so I tried to make a mini-FAQ people can just refer to. Let me know if I missed anything.

What does it mean when a lens is capable of macro photography?
You have a lens that projects an image of your subject on a sensor. That looks like this picture here. In this case, the Blue arrow is your subject, and the yellow arrow is it being projected onto the sensor. You focus a lens by moving back and forth to get that yellow arrow and sensor to align.
Notice the equation at the top, the closer you want to focus on something, the farther the lens needs to be from the sensor. You can see this for yourself, plug in numbers and see. For a 50mm (f = 50) if we want the subject to be 300 mm away (di = 300) then the lens needs to be 60 mm away (do = 60). But if we move our subject closer (di = 100) then the lens needs to be 100 mm away from the sensor (do = 100 too).
You can also compute the magnification of the image by the ratio of these distance. So when di = 300, do = 60, therefore we are at 1:5 magnification. What this means is if you are taking a picture of a subject 10mm across, it will be 10/5 = 2mm across on the sensor. Which means, for the second case, where di = do = 100 mm, we are at 1:1 which is macro. A 10mm subject will take up 10mm of your sensor. You can go into “super macro” which is when you go beyond 2:1. For example some lenses do 4:1, which means a 10mm subject would take up 40mm of your sensor. On a crop sensor (23mm accross) 4:1 would mean a 5.6mm object would take up your entire sensor.
Example of 1:1 macro
Example of 4:1 macro
All lenses are theoretically capable of macro, but not physically capable. The reason is because the closer you want to allow focus, the farther the lens has to be able to get from the sensor, which means a longer and heavier lens. For the vast majority who dont shoot macro, this is an unnecessary drawback. So often they pick a minimum focusing distance well before macro ranges.
For example, the infamous nifty fifty (the 50mm f/1.8 everyone loves) usually has a minimum focusing distance of 450 mm, which means, from our equation above, the image is projected 56.25 mm away, so the ratio is only 1:8 which is more than most people care for. Since every lens has to have a finite distance it can move to focus, every lens has to have some minimum focusing distance. Macro lenses are simply those that are long enough to allow for focusing at macro ranges. In fact some dedicated macro lenses can only focus on close subjects.
Do I want a macro extension tube or a macro lens or a macro optical filter or a lens reverse adapter
First lets compare macro extension tubes to optical filters:
An optical filter adds an optical piece in front of your lens. It’s changing your focal length. They are often bad because the optical element is one size fits all, and creates issues, and the lens is operating at a focal length it isn't meant to.
A macro extension tube isn't changing how your lens works at all. It's just giving you access to different focus distances. It doesn't add optical elements, it doesn't change focal lengths, it let's your lens function as is. This means a dirt cheap tube, will always be as good, and often better than an optical filter. The one drawback of an extension tube is you lose the ability to focus farther away.
Thank you to CarVac for the below note:
A doublet filter, like the Canon 500D, is very effective for telephoto lenses and doesn't hurt image quality much. But you pay for the quality, they run around a hundred bucks.
Tubes often do harm image quality. Most conventional lenses are corrected for a certain focusing distance and that's not the macro regime. So you may find heavy field curvature or astigmatism with tubes.
Now with that out of the way, here is a general statement I will standby. Everyone should always get macro extension tubes before a dedicated lens. Macro is a labor of love, and very difficult, you might hate it. Extension tubes let you experience macro without major financial investment. They allow you to use any lens you already have. And they can even work on macro lenses to make them super macro, or even on super macro to go beyond. I, for example, put the same macro tubes I got years ago on my 4.5:1 macro lens, and can attain 8:1 magnification. Get macro tubes first.
Thank you to TOMMMMMM for the below blurb about reverse lens adapters!
A lens works by taking a large scene in life and condensing the light down to the size of your camera sensor. When you screw the lens on in reverse, you are doing the opposite: taking a very small scene and enlarging it to the size of your sensor.
Here's a quick article I found on them.
https://expertphotography.com/reversing-rings-macro-photography/
There are of course limitations in that you won't have any electronic coupling to the camera, so you need to set your aperture and focus ahead dog time if using a fully electronic lens manual lenses are easier as you can adjust aperture and focus when using the ring.
Example of 8:1 macro This text is on an american coin, about 5mm across. This was only possible with extension tubes.
This calculator will show you your new magnification with a macro tube
Same calculator, different site
Ok what gear do I need to shoot macro?
I will be showing an example of shooting macro on a simple budget, but nothing I list below is the only option, many are just what I had on hand. First we need to talk about stacked macro photography. At macro ranges, your Depth of Field is razor thin, literally. As in, I have often found myself working with 0.5 mm of DoF. Stacked photography is where you take several pictures at different focusing distances, then combine them in post. So if my subject is 3mm deep, and I am getting 0.5mm of DoF then I will need at least 3/0.5 = 6 pictures, though doubling that is recommended for sharpness and margin of error.
Body
The camera body is probably the least important part of macro in my opinion. I manual focus the whole time, and usually manual exposure too, so tech means very little. I stack images which kills noise, so ISO performance doesnt matter to me. There are really only three things that really affect me. First being able to use an off camera shutter is very useful to reduce camera shake. The D3500, for example, lacks the shutter port I love on the D3200. Second is an electronic shutter without a mirror moving, it also helps with camera movement, but not as much, and isnt as important. Finally a tilty screen is a nice convenience for setting up the initial focus, and its fun to see the images as you take them. If you want to shoot macro hand held, which is easily doable, then a high shutter speed is also important. Often you will need to shoot off 20+ pictures while trying to keep focus, and having this happen faster is almost always better.
I used to use a D3200 with great success. Worth about $175 used.
Lens
The lens is actually VERY important, but you can do a lot for cheap. Wide focal lengths give you more DoF, and higher magnifications with spacers, while longer focal lengths give you more reach. For example, on my D800 I love my 180mm because it has enough reach to let me hit live insects, but prefer a 35mm for stacked work because it reduces the frames I need and decreases the effect of shutter shake.
I would use a 35mm f/1.8 on APSC because its my favorite APSC lens, super cheap, great working distance, and very sharp. Worth about $125 used. The 50mm f/1.8, and 85mm f/1.8 are also great options, but they will require a lot more work to get to 1:1 and often can never reach 2:1 or farther.
Tripod
A good tripod will save you a lot of headache, and while not the most important, is worth investing in. For example, I was shooting a flower for stacking, and at the end found out my $15 tripod was slowly lowering, like 1mm every 5 mins, but that was enough that I couldn't stack any of my pictures. If you have a light set up (<2lbs) the manfrotto PIXI mini is some AMAZING bang for your buck at $18. Obviously if you don't plan to stack, and while shooting hand held, a tripod does you no good.
Macro Rail
(This ONLY applies to stacked macro photography)
This is a place where spending helps but isnt actually all that necessary. One of my favorite macro shooters, does some of his work free hand. I will say that after moving to a rail, I will never go back for stacking. The most important thing to watch here is that you have a "worm gear drive" basically you turn a screw that moves the rail back and forth. You do NOT want a rail that you unlock with a screw and move by hand. You will NOT be able to move it exactly 1mm then tighten back down, but with a worm gear, its as easy as turning the screw a set amount (e.g. 1/4 turn) between shots.
I like my Neewer All Metal Wormdrive Macro Focus Rail, it is very consistent, easy to use, and solid. It is a little heavy at 0.6 lbs. Worth $40 new.
Light
For stacked photography:
You're lighting is important but personally I dont think its worth getting into. The problem with flashes are they take too long to recharge and can run out of batteries. I literally use a cheap af desk lamp I found in the garage. You can use your cellphone light if you plug it in. I am calling this one free because brand new I see equivalent lights at $8 and I feel like everyone has something laying around.
For hand held photography:
Lighting can make or break an image here. At these working distances you and the camera will block the light, which only compounds the need for it. (one of the benefits of a longer focal length, you don't block the light) The best thing you can have here is a flash because of the power and instantaneous light, it helps fight motion blur. The cheapest option is to take a normal on camera flash and bounce the light down, which you can do with aluminum foil and tape. The next step up is to use a flash cable, which basically gives you an off camera hot shoe. Its brighter, more effective, and gives you great control over the light. Finally there are purpose built flash modules for macro photography you can look into. The main thing you want to avoid are front facing flashes like ring lights. They will flatten the image, hide textures, and generally leave a less pleasing look.
Macro Spacer
These are important because if they are not sturdy, your lens will be all over the place. Tilt shift lenses are only fun when intentional and not from poor build quality. That being said I used the cheapest set on amazon that had 4.5 stars or more and they work great.
I am using some off brand spacer, its a 3 set that is about $20. I would suggest spending closer to $50 for something quality, but my cheap set has never let me down.
Remote Shutter
(This ONLY applies to stacked macro photography)
This is a frivolous purchase, you can macro without it, but it reduces camera shake letting me use slower shutters, and wait less time for the camera to stop moving. Personally I think its 100% worth it to get one.
I am using some cheap wired shutter that got off craigslist, it was $5 used.
Cost Breakdown (for stacked photography)
|Item|Cost|
|--:|:--|
|D3200|$175|
|35mm f/1.8|$125|
|GeekotoTripod|$50| |Neewer Rail|$40|
|Macro Spacer|$20|
|Shutter Trigger|$5|
The point I am trying to make here is that for $415 you can take great macro shots. Ranging from this single exposure of a cookie to this 3 image stack of a butterfly wing all the way to a 100+ image stack of a bullet. Macro is hard but very rewarding, and it doesn't require expensive gear. Sure a dedicated macro lens would work better, and sure an automated motorized rail does all the tedious work, but neither a necessary for a great picture.
Set up
Setting up your target is really important because it affects the image you produce, obviously, but also you cant really guess and check. With a landscape, I can try a few shots and see what I like best, with macro thats a lot harder. Think about what the final image would look like with a thin DoF. For example this spider head on and from the top lead to very different results. Personally I think the former is 10x better because the framing has pleasing composition, and the head on approach leads to a more intentional capture.
On top of that you need to think critically about your light and its angle. Unlike portrait photography you WANT harsh light to show off textures, for example the light here shows the texture of the grooves cut into the grenade. The angle matters a lot, remember the concept of "up" isn't entirely there in macro. You can backlight translucent subjects or you can front light to isolate a subject.
Take your time to set up your camera and light, otherwise you will waste an entire day to create an image you end up finding ugly and boring.
Exposure Triangle
Shutter - stacked
Being on a tripod its temping to let your shutter be as long as possible because "nothing is moving". At macro levels, the slightest movement becomes motion blur, even at 1/3 s. The exact shutter speed depends on your tripod, do you live on a second floor, etc. What I suggest doing is starting at your focal length (e.g. 35mm on crop is like 50mm on FF, so I start at 1/50s), taking a shot, doubling the time (1/50 s to 1/25) taking a shot, and repeating until you hit about a second. Take these images and pixel peep until you find the speed that has no motion blur, you might be surprised by it. For me and that aforementioned mess up, I needed 1/100s on a 180mm FF macro lens.
Shutter - handheld
With hand held photography, its really hard to say because there are so many variables. Is your camera and/or lens stable? Is there wind? How stable are you? How sensitive is your subject to your movement? Is your subject moving around?
The only method that works (and is what I resort to everytime) is genuinely guess and check. Try a shutter you think might work. If it does, go slower, and if it doesn't go faster. Repeat until you find the slowest shutter speed you can. Accuracy by volume, put your shutter on continuous high, hold the trigger for a bit, and see if you got it. Having a flash will make this process much easier, as the flash will help freeze motion.
Aperture
This is a genuine trade off, too open and you have no depth of field, too closed and you lose sharpness. At 35mm you need to be about 5 in away to get your subject in focus. At f/1.8 you have 0.03 in. in focus. At f/4 you have 0.07 in. in focus. At f/8 you have 0.14 in. in focus. At f/16 you have 0.29 in. in focus. From this along you may think, crank it down to f/16! but you get much softer images. The 35mm specifically peaks at f/4, but are you willing to deal with that narrow DoF? Personally I start at f/5.6 and then make adjustments as needed. There is no right or wrong answer.
For stacked photography, there is a slight exception. Its generally considered better to choose your peak sharpness aperture. You will need to take a lot more frames, it will take more time, the stacking will grow almost exponentially. Dont feel pressured to do this, but it is technically the best way to get the sharpest images.
ISO
For stacked photography its super tempting to pick base ISO, but you need to remember when stacking images, noise disappears. This was shot at ISO 1600 but looks like ISO 100 to me. And for hand held you often dont have a real choice because your dependent on whatever your shutter and aperture are. Dont stress your ISO, let it fly high! I usually pick an aperture and shutter speed, then just use whatever ISO properly exposes the image.
Other - stacked
Other setting I like using: Electronic shutter if available, if not mirror up shooting also helps. In some cameras this is called "Exposure Delay Mode" or something. I also like to set the camera to manual focus because I have hit my AF-ON before and it sucked. Your lens should be in the closest focus distance for the highest magnification and on a macro spacer. How much space you need depends on your lens. For my 35mm DX, a 35mm spacer gives me 1:1 macro. I also suggest RAW for the most detail recovery.
Shooting - hand held
Auto focus is not suited to macro, and often makes your images blurry. On top of that there is only 1 focus position to get the maximum magnification, so as soon as auto focus does anything, you're not maximizing your macro. Put your focus on the closes position. Put your camera in manual focus, and continuous high shutter. Slowly lean into your target, and right before the front of it is in focus start shooting. As you hold down the shutter, try to keep the subject in focus. After a batch of pictures, review for motion blur, make sure one of the pictures has correct focus, see if your DoF is enough and make any adjustments as needed. You may need to go through this a couple of times before you get one perfect to your liking.
Shooting - stacked
I have a set process for taking my pictures, it's not perfect, but I think it's a good starting point for you to take and develop your own off of.
  1. Set up camera, light, and subject, mess with as I feel until I find something I like.
  2. Camera is mounted on a rail, which is on the tripod, so adjust the rail until the front of my subject is in focus. Take a shot. Move the dial 1 rotation. Take a shot. Determine my DOF in terms of dial rotations from there. E.g. if I feel like the DOF moved 4x what I want, my dial turns are going to be 1/4 turns. I like to have the DOF have a 50% overlap, so I would do 1/8 turns.
  3. Move my rail so the front of the subject is barely in focus, then back up so nothing is in focus.
  4. Wait for the camera to stop moving. Take a shot. Turn the dial (e.g. the 1/8 turn from before). Wait for the camera to stop moving. Take a shot. Repeat until you have every slice of focus you want. If you are paranoid about camera shake, noise, etc. you can take 3-6 shots before moving the rail, but make sure you wait for the camera to stop moving between every shot.
Editing - stacked
There are a lot of workflows to editing, none are perfect, mine is far from ideal, but again is a great starting point for you to find your own. My workflow is:
  1. Rough edit in RawTherapee (free) for color, exposure, white balance etc. DO NOT CROP THE IMAGES.
  2. Align with Hugin (free)
  3. Stack in EnfuseGUI (free)
  4. Do a final and more thorough edit in RawTherapee (free)
This is definitely one of the places where money can make this process faster. Photoshop has a great stacking system as does Affinity, but those cost money. I also wont go into the details of how to use RawTherapee because its not specific to macro, and you can use literally ANY raw editor. Personally I have switched to Affinity for most projects because its easier and it goes on sale very often. Even if it doesnt, I think the $50 is worth it. That being said, since I have used and worked the free method a lot, and there are already good tutorials for the paid software, I will concentrate on the free process.
Hugin
Hugin is a free and powerful panorama stitcher, which I also love for its pano capabilities. What we want it for here is a specific subprogram within it called align_image_stack that is installed automatically when you install Hugin.
You use this subprogram from the command prompt, which seems daunting but is fast to learn. Hit the windows key and type "cmd" and run the program cmd.exe which should open the command prompt. From there navigate to where you saved the pictures. There are 2 important commands here. "cd" is to change folders. So you can say "cd Pictures" to go to the folder called Pictures. "dir" shows you the available options. Example. I would also suggest reading up on the basic commands.
One you are in the folder with your picture you will use the program by running the following [program] [flags] [pictures]
The [program] is where the program is located, it never changes. For me its
C:\Program Files\Hugin\bin\align_image_stack.exe
The [pictures] are the photos you want to stack. So if you saved everything as .jpg and they are the ONLY .jpg in the folder (HIGHLY suggested) you can just use
*.jpg
The [flags] section is just the modifiers you want to add, here is what I suggest:
  1. -v lets you see what it's doing real time
  2. -C uses the max cropped area so you can choose the crop later
  3. -a OUT saves all your files in a OUT0001.tif format
Here is a list of all the flags and what they do
My usual command is
C:\Program Files\Hugin\bin\align_image_stack.exe -v -C -a OUT *.jpg
This will take a while to run in the background, go sip some tea. When it's done you will see OUT0001.tif, OUT0002.tif, OUT0003.tif all the way to whatever number files you have like OUT0177.tif. From here look through the images and see if they are aligned. If they are, move on, if not adjust your settings and repeat. The best settings to play with are
  1. “-g” changes the grid size, lowering helps if the camera moved a lot, increasing helps if it didnt move, but there is a pattern that repeats which confuses the code. The default is a 5x5 grid.
  2. “-c” changes the number of command points per grid. The default is 20, but you can increase it to anything. The more you add the more accurate it will be, but the longer it will take.
  3. “--corr=” changes the threshold for what it considers the same pixel between images. If you aren't getting a lot of control points, lower this value, though increase your “-c” to counter balance is a good idea.
EnfuseGUI
EnfuseGUI is a simple but effective stacking tool. All it does is take images that are already aligned, then masks part of them into visibility based on some criteria. Here is the technical explanation of what each change does. If you don't care Here are the settings you should probably use with the important ones in red.
  1. Keep exposure to 0 otherwise it favors middle grey which you don't care about (this is for HDR).
  2. Keep Contrast to 1 so it picks the most contrasty (aka the in focus) parts of each image
  3. Keep the Saturation to 0 so it doesn't pick based on color, otherwise chromatic noise will dominate
  4. Force hard blend masks prevents halo-ing, but feel free to try without it
  5. Export to jpg mode to reduce file size
From here, drag and drop your images into the left side, and hit "Preview" to make sure you like what you have. If you don't, play with settings, if you do, hit "Enfuse It!" to make it run, this will also take a while, I hope you like tea.
A common error is running out of memory. If you load 1000 TIFs you will run out of RAM and it will not run to the end. The way around this is to recursively stack images. Right above the JPEG button you selected is "Bracket Count" Lower this to whatever the highest you can do without failure. Then import the newly stacked images (they will be in a new folder called "Enfuse") and repeat. If you have 1000 images and can do 10 at a time, you would need to do this 3 times instead of 1.
FIN
Now that you have a final image, you should be able to take it back into RawTherapee, or whatever, edit as you see fit, and flex on your friends with your sweet image.
If you are having trouble with the software I uploaded frames you can use to test the human error. These 153 images are after editing, but before align_image_stack onwards. I used them to get this final image so I know they work. Try working with them to learn the software!
submitted by OmniaMors to photography [link] [comments]

Trade worth taking

Using Tuesday closing rates, a trader sells an 11,300 straddle (Nifty call and put) for a combined Rs 523 a share. Simultaneously, he buys a 10,800 put and an 11,800 call for a combined Rs 176 a share to protect against sharper swings. The inflow thus reduces to Rs 347 (523-176), the maximum gain. The trader gains if the Nifty veers in a 10,953-11,647 range with maximum gain accruing at 11,300. The loss begins below 10,953 till 10,800 and from 11,647 -11,800. It’s limited to Rs 153 no matter how much the Nifty falls below the upper or lower breakeven points. For example, if the Nifty slumps to 10,600, the sold 11,300 put is in the money by Rs 700, while the purchased 10,800 is 200 ITM. After relinquishing the inflow of Rs 347 and the gain of Rs 200, the trader shells out Rs 153 from her own pocket to the 11,300 put buyer. Similarly, if the Nifty breaks above 11,647, the loss is limited due to purchase of an 11,800 call.
submitted by wildfiresax to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

Public Service Announcement

Ladyboys, stop fucking up!
I see your posts and comments, most of you will have to move in with your momma if the losses keep piling up the way things are.
Options trading isn't simple, gay boi!
What options are for: To create a backtested strategy with a spread that tilts the probability of trading in your favour. You only enter when the odds are in your favour. This is the Hunger Games. And you're Katniss Everdeen in a skimpy bikini. Win this shit.
Now, options are usually planned with a weekly or monthly horizon.
Check this out: Nifty is currently at 9000. The expiry date is 16 April. You are bearish but are worried because the money printer keeps going Brrrrrr.
If you're smart, you create an options trade where if Nifty lands anywhere between 8500 to 9200, you make money!
Trades with breakevens like the one listed above could have a 80-90% probability of making money.
There are multiple ways to achieve this, of course. You could use a modified butterfly. Or a strangle. Even if the trade is going against you, you can exit with a profit! That's the beauty of options trading, IF executed correctly.
If you don't have the requisite knowledge, paper trade. Make option strategies online and post them here. The other Redditors will help you out. Or wait for the mods. One of us will definitely let you know. If they're great, we'll give you a thumbs up and a pat on the butt. If they're shit, we'll tell you how to improve upon that strategy.
There are layers to options trading too. I'm sure you've heard of theta decay or VIX being too high or premiums changing. There are tons of other factors which could destroy your trade. Even if your DD was right on, you could be leaving tons of money on the table. Never forget that in most trades with a good reward, the drop off is that you have unlimited risk. UNLIMITED RISK.
You like that, you fucking retard?
Now, let's assume you're a true Gay Bear who expects Nifty to go all the way to 6500. You've done some research, have some experience and would like to bet some money on your hunch. Fine, it's your cash.
Sell Nifty Futures! You still get the added benefits of crazy margins but you don't have to be right about the timing of the trade. All the complicated mumbo jumbo vanishes and all you have to be right about is the market direction.
So now, instead of Nifty having to reach 6500 by 16 April, in a future trade, it could touch that level by 16 July and you'd still be able to walk into the sunset with enough gold to give Bappi Lahri a complex.
Buying a Nifty 6500 put because you expect Nifty to drop to that number is beyond autistic. You're plain stupid. Switch to investing in liquid gold funds which give you 0.5% over inflation. That's where you belong.
Things to absolutely avoid: 1. Entering a trade without a stop loss. 2. Trading without knowing the margin required. 3. Lack of execution. 4. Not knowing the targets. 5. Revenge/emotional trading. 6. Trading without full access to your phone/laptop. 7. Entering naked trades.
submitted by Energizer_94 to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

Option selling margin _Banknifty_With Proofe nifty option trading margin details Astha Trade Account Opening Free  Highest Intraday Margin for Crude Oil & Bank Nifty Intraday Brokerage 06 June 2020 Bank Nifty Trade & Margin Latest Margins required in selling Nifty Options by The Option School

Highest Future Intraday Margin In India : ; If you are buying NIFTY Futures, we do this at Rs. 3500 (MIS) i.e you need to put only Rs.2500 in your Astha trading account and start trading. Similarly for BankNifty we do this in Rs. 3500 (MIS).. You can check carryover Margin Here for Futures contracts.The new SEBI circular mandates brokers to collect the complete SPAN + Exposure margin to carry Bank Nifty contracts allowed for trading Current Week- 22500 TO 23200 CE & PE Next week- 22000 TO 23400 CE & PE Next Month- 21300 TO 22800 CE & PE More information Nifty attracts the lowest margin when trading in futures; Historically Nifty has been volatile and will continue to do so. The idea of this product is to catch the volatility in the Nifty during the intraday period with a "all long" view. Remember these points while using this system. For trading this mechanical system, you need to have minimum Futures Buying Value = Future Contract Value * Margin Required. Futures Buying Value = 4,00,000 * 10%. Futures Buying Value = Rs. 40,000. So finally, if you want to buy Nifty futures as per the given scenario then you will require Rs. 40,000 to purchase one lot of future contract in derivative market. Nifty Futures and Options Margin Requirement for Popular Trading Strategies May 31, 2020 by Rajandran Leave a Comment Thought of compiling the margin requirement for various Nifty Futures and Options Trading Strategies as New Margin Trading Framework for Futures and Options Trading is likely to be effective from 1st June 2020 onwards.

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Option selling margin _Banknifty_With Proofe

Hi! In this video, I have explained to you what are the margin requirements to trade one single lot of Nifty Future Using UPSTOX Pro App. I have also mentioned different margin requirements for ... Latest Margins required in selling Nifty Options by The Option School. Margin requirements or changes in margins can effect your option trading strategy badly. It is always important to to be ... Astha Trade account opening is free. Only broker to give highest intraday trading margin for crude oil, bank nifty, nifty, gold and intraday stocks. Open Demat account with your favorite broker ... Intraday Brokerage 06 June 2020 Bank Nifty Trade & Margin Indian Stock market for Beginners Live Profit Share Trading Best stocks to Buy. Intraday Tips stock trading strategies for Share bazaar ... FREE TRADING & DEMAT ACCOUNT Equity: 40X NIFTY/BankNifty: 4000 Margin CRUDEOIL: 8000 Margin https://asthatrade.com/?c=VeHox

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